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SQL Server Security: Pros and Cons of Application Roles



roles aren’t talked about frequently when database roles are discussed. The

idea behind applications roles is a valid one: if a user comes through a

particular application (and that application only), there should be a mechanism

where the user gains privileges specific to that application. For instance, if I

have a call tracking system, all users may need SELECT rights against tables for

ad hoc queries. However, the users should not have any means to edit the tables

unless they come through my special call tracking system. I expect the data to

be handled in a certain way and I don't want anyone manipulating data outside of

my application. But how can I give users the ability to only read data in one

context yet modify data in another? One answer is with the application role.


I utilize application roles, I can grant a user the ability to read the tables

and that's that. When the user comes through the application, the application

executes a special stored procedure to activate the application role and the

application's connection (this is an important point I'll discuss a bit later)

has the new permissions of the application role. I haven't had to grant the user

two different logins (such as with a service account or an additional SQL Server

login specifically for the application), but I have managed to build two

different contexts so far as permissions are concerned for my given user. And if

you aren't very familiar with application roles you're probably thinking,

"What's the catch?" Of course there is one (actually more than one).

That's what this article is about: the pros and cons of using application roles.


for the disclaimer: I'm biased. I don't like application roles. While I agree

with the concept behind them, I've not found many uses for them where the pros

outweigh the cons. While I've considered their use in several major applications

my organization has written, each time the application roles have proven

themselves unworkable. I'll try and be fair and balanced in this article,

but I've provided this disclaimer in case I'm not.

Pro: Application-specific Permissions

This pro is the whole reason application roles exist. If I want to tailor

permissions for a particular application, I can do so using application roles. I

create the application role, assign permissions to the application role, and

then when the application connects to SQL Server, I execute a stored procedure

to activate the application role. Immediately I have all the permissions of the

application role, completely replacing any previous permissions I might have

had. The star players for using application roles are a pair of

stored procedures:

Stored ProcedurePurpose
sp_addapproleCreates an application role in the existing


sp_setapproleActivates an application role for the current


I'll go back to my example. In my Call Tracking System, I have a table

TroubleTickets. Because management wants to be able to produce reports against

this table and they could come up with any number of queries using various

third-party reporting applications, I've had no choice but to grant SELECT

rights for certain users against the TroubleTickets table. Of course, some of

these users are also using the Call Tracking System to manage tickets. If I

grant INSERT and UPDATE rights to the users via a normal database role, that

means these particular users could make changes in TroubleTickets through

Microsoft Access, Query Analyzer, Enterprise Manager, or some other tool. They

wouldn't be making changes through my application. I could go a step further and

force all inserts and updates to the table through various stored procedures and

at least I've stopped users from directly modifying the table. Are we in the

clear yet? Not necessarily. What if my call tracking system has business rules

that we've found too complex to model with stored procedures and still get a

reasonable amount of performance? Then I'll build those business rules into my

application and the rules will be applied before any stored procedure is called.

I'm relying heavily on the application, aren't I? But if a regular user has

direct access to the stored procedures, the user can bypass all the business

rules I have in place. This is a problem. Here's where an application role can

be helpful because I can give a regular user different permissions depending on

context. A bit of code shows this advantage:

-- Role to handle those who have to report against the 

EXEC sp_addrole 'CallManagementReporting'


-- Grant SELECT access to TroubleTickets for this role

GRANT SELECT ON dbo.TroubleTickets TO CallManagementReporting


-- Application Role to handle data manipulation through the use of stored procedures

EXEC sp_addapprole 'CallTrackingApplication', 'SomePa$$word'


-- Grant EXECUTE right on a stored procedure to the application role

GRANT EXEC on dbo.usp_AddTicket TO CallTrackingApplication


I've created a database role called CallManagementReporting to handle queries

against TroubleTickets. I've also created an application role titled

appropriately CallTrackingApplication and I've granted it the ability to execute

dbo.usp_AddTicket. Only this particular application role has permission to

execute the stored procedure and you have to know the password (which we won't

give out) in order to active the role. With the application role I've been able

to create different permissions based on context.

Pro: Potentially Fewer Logins Required

I use the word potentially cautiously. The use of application roles can

reduce the number of logins if personnel already have valid logins to SQL

Server. If I have to maintain separate security contexts and I don't use

application roles, then I have to use a service account or some other sort of

shared login for the application. One more login may not seem like much, but

it's one more account that potentially can be compromised. If I'm trying to

control access, I want as few accounts as possible. It's much easier to keep an

eye on three or four logins than twenty. If I set up the application role, users

log on to SQL Server using their normal logins and the application activates the

role. But while an application role in this context can reduce the number of

logins, it could also cause the opposite effect. And that leads me to a

discussion of the cons.

Con: Potentially More Logins Required

If I have the situation where users don't normally have access to SQL Server

except through the application, then they probably don't have logins to the SQL

Server. If I stick with using application roles and I throw out the idea of a

shared account, I have to enable more logins for the SQL Server than I would

previously. I can reduce the administrative overhead with the use of Windows

groups (and as far as SQL Server is concerned I grant access to the group and

not the individual users) but what I don't prevent is the ability to do reconnaissance.

For instance, a user with a valid login has the ability to query against SQL

Server and issue a statement like SELECT @@VERSION. Issuing this one statement

tells the user two valuable pieces of information: the version of SQL Server and

the version of the operating system (including service pack). I can look at

these versions and get an idea of what vulnerabilities the system has. If I see

a SQL Server version prior to SP2, I know I can exploit the SQL Server listener

service on UDP/1434 as Slammer did. If I see a Windows 2000 version prior to

SP2, I know the RPC DCOM vulnerability Blaster and its variants have been

exploiting is present. And while we try to ensure all of servers are at the

latest service packs and hotfixes, the truth of the matter is often this isn't

the case. 

Obviously we run this risk with any login. If a user can logon to SQL Server,

the user can execute this query. As a result, minimizing the number of logins is

always preferred. Therefore, if there are a number of users who don't log into

SQL Server except through the application it may be a better practice to use a

service account or single login and have the application handle the security. A

good example is an intranet application used by the entire company. In my

organization's intranet application, a single login is used because the majority

of users only access the SQL Server due to the intranet site. Therefore, there

is no reason to grant them each logins. Instead, a single login is used and the

intranet application handles the security.

Con: OLE DB Resource Pooling Issues

From a performance standpoint, opening and closing database connections are

resource intensive and thus the concept of connection or resource pooling has

come about. My application may make a call to close a database connection, but

I'll leave it open for a set period of time in case I receive a call to open a

new connection with the exact same credentials. I've therefore saved the

resources required to close the connection and then open a new one. While one

connection here or there may not seem like a lot, if I have applications making

lots of connections, I can see a performance improvement by using connection or

resource pooling. However, if I chose to use application roles, I won't be able

to use resource pooling.

Application roles take effect for the remainder of a given connection. If I'm

maintaining connections in order to improve performance that means my

application role will apply to any "new" connection if the credentials

are the same. At first glance we might say, "Oh, the horror! Application

roles mean we take a hit to performance." But that's usually not the case,

and this may not be a con in most configurations using application roles. Keep

in mind the whole reason we'd implement application roles is to give our users

different security contexts. We expect users to still logon to SQL Server using

their own "personal" credentials. The application role would override

their credentials and replace them with its own. So if a user is coming through

an application which activates an application role, the user is still initially

logging on to SQL Server using his or her individual logon. Connection and

resource pooling works by reusing connections if the credentials match those of

a previously open connection. Coming through Query Analyzer, if I've already set

the application role for a connection and I call sp_setapprole again, I will

receive the following error:

Server: Msg 2762, Level 16, State 1, Procedure sp_setapprole, Line 41
sp_setapprole was not invoked correctly. Refer to the documentation for more information.

You could also see a "General Network Error" instead of this one

and both are related to the Resource Pooling issue. The workaround given by

Microsoft is to disable resource pooling altogether. Since ADO uses Resource

Pooling by default, you'll have to add this to your connection string:


Services = -2

This will disable Connection Pooling and you'll therefore avoid the

error.  I've included a link in the Additional Resources section to the

Microsoft Knowledge Base article on this issue.

Con: Crossing Databases Requires the guest User

If I have a multiple database application, I probably don't want to use an

application role. When an application role takes effect, it overrides any

database and login credentials for the connection. That means if I try to access

another database using the three-part naming convention like

Northwind.dbo.Customers, I won't map into the database based on my original

login. The only user I can use is guest, if it is defined. If guest is not

defined, I run into problems. While SQL Server remembers who I am, it doesn't

let me map into the database. If I try, I'll receive an error like so:

Server: Msg 916, Level 14, State 1, Line 1
Server user 'MyDomain\MyUser' is not a valid user in database 'SecondDatabase'.

Not only do I not map into a second database based on my login, but I'm also

restricted from using the USE command to switch databases. If the guest user

isn't enabled in the second database, I receive an error like the one above. If

I have enabled the guest user in the database I'm trying to switch to, I'll

receive a different error which makes it clear the application role is stopping


Server: Msg 8194, Level 16, State 1, Line 1
Cannot execute a USE statement while an application role is active.

Therefore, if my application requires the use of more than one database I

have to enable the guest user in the database(s) where the application role

doesn't reside. Once I invoke the application role, I can only get to them using

the guest user.

Con: Server Roles Are Overridden

Just as my ability to access databases is restricted, so too is my ability to

use anything granted to me by a server role when I enact an application role. On

most servers I control I have sysadmin fixed server role rights, meaning I can

do anything I want on the given SQL Server. I can certainly execute sp_addlogin

to add a login to SQL Server. But once I enact an application role, my server

role permissions are gone. If I were to try and execute sp_addlogin after

activating an application role, I'll receive the following error:

Server: Msg 15247, Level 16, State 1, Procedure sp_addlogin, Line 17

User does not have permission to perform this action.

Being a member of sysadmin means I'm automatically a member of securityadmin.

However, if I look at the block of code in sp_addlogin that generated the error,

I see the following:


IF (not is_srvrolemember('securityadmin') = 1) 


   dbcc auditevent (104, 1, 0, @loginame, NULL, NULL, @sid) 


   return (1) 




   dbcc auditevent (104, 1, 1, @loginame, NULL, NULL, @sid) 


I can't add the user because I no longer register as a member of the

securityadmin fixed server role. This can be a problem but I have to look at

this con from a realistic perspective. If I'm coming through an application

which is going to enact an application role, it is very unlikely I'm going to

use any permissions related to a fixed server role. I'm going to use Enterprise

Manager, Query Analyzer (the most likely in my case), or some third-party

database administration tool, not some application which will change my security

context. This con shouldn't be a show-stopper but it is one we need to be aware

of as DBAs.

Con: Protecting the Password Is a Concern

Application roles should have passwords. Otherwise, a user could just enact

an application role any time he or she wanted to using some means of connecting

to the database other than through the application. With additional passwords

comes additional management responsibilities. But we face this same issue when

dealing with service accounts and shared logins. Typical techniques used to

protect these passwords work for application roles with a couple of


The first exception is it is possible to enact an application role without

encrypting the password. While encrypting the password is a relatively simple

affair, I can't prevent someone from activating the application role without

encryption. For instance, I can make the following call:

EXEC sp_setapprole 'CallTrackingApplication', 'SomePa$$word'

This request is perfectly legal so far as SQL Server is concerned but as you

can plainly, see, the password is in clear view. However, as Figure 1 shows,

Profiler won't reveal the password or even the application role being invoked.

Rather, it records that an sp_setapprole call was made but provides no

additional information.


Figure 1: SQL Profiler hides details about the

sp_setapprole call

If you're running SQL Server 2000 patched to SQL Server SP3 or higher, the

only possibility for getting the password is if it travels across the network

and the communication between SQL Server and the client system is unencrypted.

As of SP3, DBCC INPUTBUFFER() only returns the name of the stored procedure if

the event was an RPC call. The function fn_get_sql() will automatically filter

out security related stored procedures like sp_setapprole as well. However, if

you're running a SQL Server version prior to SQL Server 2000 SP3, DBCC

INPUTBUFFER() can reveal the password so there is a method to getting method

without sniffing network traffic. Keep in mind the execution rights on DBCC

INPUTBUFFER, though. Regular users can execute DBCC INPUTBUFFER() for their SPID

only. Sysadmins can execute DBCC INPUTBUFFER() on any SPID, but then again they

have all rights on the SQL Server anyway. If you still want the password

encrypted, here's how to force the password through the ODBC Encrypt function:

EXEC sp_setapprole '<Application

Role>', {Encrypt N'<password>'}, 'odbc'

Using the example I've already given:

EXEC sp_setapprole 'CallTrackingApplication', {Encrypt

N'SomePa$$word'}, 'odbc' 

The second issue is the strength of the encryption. The encryption method is

extremely weak. If the communication between the application and the SQL Server

travels across the network and that communication isn't encrypted, someone can

sniff the packets and get the encrypted password for the application role.

However, the encryption method is the same as with a SQL Server login, so we've

not incurred any greater risk when we talk about the network. Unlike, SQL Server

logins, however, I could potentially catch the sp_setapprole request using DBCC

INPUTBUFFER() if I'm accessing a SQL Server system prior to SQL Server 2000 SP3

as I've previously discussed. But then again, I have to be a sysadmin to do this

and therefore I'd say  this risk is relatively small. If you're unfamiliar

with how SQL Server login passwords are encrypted as they travel across the

wire, you can read up on the encryption algorithm in a previous article I've

written. I've added it to the Additional Resources section of this article.

Depending on how application role passwords are stored for a given

application, application roles may present a third issue. If application role

passwords are hard-coded into a compiled application, then the password can

never be reset. That means if someone should compromise the application role

password, there is no option to reset the password. Of course, if we're dealing

with SQL Server logins this can also be the case. I still remember my dismay

when I installed a third-party application that had hard-coded the SQL Server

login and password into the application. Of course, the database scripts to

create the user were contained in a text file meaning if you had a copy of the

application, you knew the username and password for any installation of that

application. Application roles can suffer from the same problem. While password

management can be a big issue, I don't think the answer is to hard-code them

into applications.

Concluding Thoughts

Application roles certainly have their place. If we need to generate

different security contexts for a user based on application, the application

role comes to the forefront. Provided our users already have logins, the use of

an application role can therefore eliminate the need for service accounts or

other shared logins. On the other hand, if not all of our users have logins for

a given SQL Server and we stick with application roles, we'll end up creating

more logins. In this case it may be better to use a shared login. There are some

other issues with application roles, the most prominent being with resource

pooling. Also, if we need to use more than one database or if we need to use

permissions granted to a server role, application roles pose a problem because

they override all other login and user contexts. This isn't as big a concern for

server roles since we wouldn't tend to use them in an application that would

enact an application role, but losing user context when crossing databases means

our only option is the guest user in these other databases. Finally, when we use

application roles we have to deal with the normal issues regarding password

management. The same issues with handling passwords with SQL Server logins also

apply to application roles. 

I've tried to give fair coverage of application roles and present both the

pros and cons. Their validity as a security option is different from application

to application and as with any reasonable security solution there are cases

where application roles make sense and other cases where they do not. Therefore,

blanket statements like "Application roles are bad," or

"Application roles are always the way to go," aren't helpful nor are

they reasonable. You'll have to make the call on any application you're

designing the database security on. 

Additional Resources

 © 2003 by K.

Brian Kelley. http://www.truthsolutions.com/

 Author of Start

to Finish Guide to SQL Server Performance Monitoring (http://www.netimpress.com).


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