CHECKDB – The database could not be exclusively locked to perform the operation

Andy Galbraith, 2015-11-18 (first published: 2015-11-16)

…so the job failed….again…you know the one – that darn Integrity Check job: 

Executing query “DECLARE @Guid UNIQUEIDENTIFIER EXECUTE msdb..sp_ma…”.: 100% complete  End Progress  Error: 2015-11-15 03:27:52.43     Code: 0xC002F210     Source: User Databases Integrity Check Execute SQL Task     Description: Executing the query “DBCC CHECKDB(N’master’)  WITH NO_INFOMSGS  ” failed with the following error: “The database could not be exclusively locked to perform the operation.  Check statement aborted. The database could not be checked as a database snapshot could not be created and the database or table could not be locked. See Books Online for details of when this behavior is expected and what workarounds exist. Also see previous errors for more details.”

This particular SQL Server 2014 Standard server is relatively new at a client that still uses old style maintenance plans (haven’t yet been able to convince them to #GoOla).  My first instinct in these cases is always that there is a problem related to the maintenance plan itself rather than the database or the integrity check command.  Since the failure is on the small yet unbelievably important master database I decided to just run the command from the query window to find out… 

DBCC CHECKDB(N’master’)  WITH NO_INFOMSGS Msg 5030, Level 16, State 12, Line 1The database could not be exclusively locked to perform the operation. 

Msg 7926, Level 16, State 1, Line 1Check statement aborted. The database could not be checked as a database snapshot could not be created and the database or table could not be locked. See Books Online for details of when this behavior is expected and what workarounds exist. Also see previous errors for more details.

I have a small private user database on the system so I tried CHECKDB there: 

DBCC CHECKDB(N’Ntirety’)  WITH NO_INFOMSGS Command(s) completed successfully.

OK….now what?
A Google of the “CHECKDB master could not be exclusively locked” brought back a short list of possibles which turned into a strand of spaghetti through the usual suspects – ServerFault, StackExchange, support.microsoft.com…before I found a question on SimpleTalk that sounded pretty spot on and referenced the most reliable source on CHECKDB I know, Paul Randal (blog/@PaulRandal).
Paul’s blog post “Issues around DBCC CHECKDB and the use of hidden database snapshots” discusses the need to have certain permissions to be able to create the snapshot CHECKDB uses.  I checked the DATA directory and the SQL Server default path and found that the service account did have Full Control to those locations.
What happened next ultimately resolved my issue, and it reflects something I constantly tell people when they ask me how I research things relatively quickly (most of the time anyway :)) – whenever you read a blog post or article about a subject, MAKE SURE TO READ THE FOLLOW-UP COMMENTS!  Sometimes they are nothing beyond “Great Article!” but quite often there are questions and answers between readers and the author that add important extra information to the topic, or just “Don’t Forget This!” style comments that add more detail.
In this case, one of the commenters said this: 

Brandon Tucker says:
August 27, 2013 at 2:19 pm
Ran into some issues and did some more debugging. Check
https://connect.microsoft.com/SQLServer/feedback/details/798675/2008-r2-engine-dbcc-checkdb-fails-against-databases-on-drives-that-dont-have-certain-root-permissions 


BINGO!
The Connect item talks about how the questioner was trying to use minimum permissions for their SQL Server service account and found that it broke the CHECKDB for their system databases in the same fashion as what I was seeing.  The agreed-upon fix was to add READ permission (just READ, not WRITE or anything higher) to the root level of the drive – not the folders, but the actual root of the drive.  Most of the respondents talked about adding the permission to ServerName\Users, while one person mentioned jut adding for the service account.
I checked the root directory of the DATA drive (where the data files for both the system and user databases reside) and found that it had been stripped down to Adminstrators and a couple of system logins (Windows Server 2012 R2). 
I added the read permission to the root of the drive for my SQL Server service account, and: 

DBCC CHECKDB(N’master’)  WITH NO_INFOMSGS
 Command(s) completed successfully.

…and all was right with the world.
A subsequent attempt to run the offending Integrity Check job succeeded cleanly as well.
This is not the first time I have seen something like this and I always have to question the level of zeal with which some security admins/teams pursue this.  In my experience most shops (by far) have insufficient security, while the remaining shops have way too much, functionally breaking the systems by keeping them so secure that *nobody* can access them.

There are only a few people out there that seem to have that happy balance figured out where data is secure but people can still do their jobs and customers can use the systems.
In general my best experience is not to mess with permissions of the SQL Server account for files/folders/drives that are relevant to SQL Server.  If a folder is in one of the MSSQL hierarchies, let the install set the permissions and then LEAVE THEM ALONE!
Your SQL Server service account doesn’t need to be a Windows administrator, or even have that elevated of general permissions – but if the file or folder is created or managed by SQL Server, leave the service account alone.

As always, my $02 – hope this helps!

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