One thing about the CPU - a lot of SQL Server operations are single-threaded, so having a lot of cores may not benefit you. There are exceptions (as queries can go parallel), but for the most part SQL performs best with a CPU that has fast single core processing. (my information on this may be outdated, but that was the case with versions prior to 2017 for sure).
That being said, I agree with Scott - SQL isn't going to be the workhorse you want for doing data analytics. SQL Server (and Oracle) are more just containers for holding the data. They can retrieve and process the data, but they are likely not the right tools for the analytics part. Think of the database like an Excel worksheet - it can hold the data and can do some of the processing, but when you start doing large data analytics on it, you end up having it chug along. That being said, SQL Server will be TONS faster than Excel at this, but depending on the number crunching you are doing, you may benefit from a full fledged analytics and reporting tool (Tableau, SAS, Power BI, etc). Those things though can be very CPU and memory heavy while they do their analytics.
That being said, SQL Server may be able to do the number crunching for you successfully depending on your data and the number crunching and the queries you are writing. An efficient query in SQL Server will perform better than poorly designed analytics in Tableau for example. It does depend on your data and your number crunching requirements and how you optimize things. Since you are doing number crunching, you can build a lot of good indexes in SQL Server and get some pretty good SELECT performance. Depending on how you design things, you could store the data as you go and have essentially staging tables along the way and reduce future processing (unless you need to re-process a staging table).
But, my opinion, since this is not for commercial purposes and for your own research, I wouldn't be too concerned about making it stupid fast; I would spend more time making sure it accurate and the data is presenting what you are wanting to show.
The above is all just my opinion on what you should do.
As with all advice you find on a random internet forum - you shouldn't blindly follow it. Always test on a test server to see if there is negative side effects before making changes to live!