Pardon my slow reply.
The storage key is used to autenticate the SSIS Azure Components with the Storage Accout. We have files (text files, csv, etc) on these accounts which we use SSIS to import into SQL Server (on-prem, hilariously) but to do the the key needs to put into the connection in the package.
OK, then the answer is yes.
Assuming you are deploying your packages to SSISDB, you can create a storage key parameter in your package and pass its value as an SSISDB environment variable. If/when the value of the storage key changes, all you need to do is modify the environment variable.
More about parameters here.
More about SSISDB variables here.