So, your issue is not with SQL Server 2017 at all. You are trying to install MDS on Windows 10 so: Is the Machine domain-joined? If not that's the issue at hand. Secondly you'll only be able to install the Developer Edition on Windows 10.
And first and foremost: Please provide full specs of your setup because we're not here to train our magic bowls or guess what you might have or have not, thank you.