A data warehouse stores current and historical data from one or more systems in a predefined and fixed schema, which allows business analysts and data scientists to easily analyze the data.
That begin said, You may be building data warehouse tables/views/Stored procedures/functions on the data warehouse database to include SQL server analyses, SSIS, and SQL server reporting.
The data warehouse database would need to be refreshed often depending on your needs. A proper data warehouse design would be good to provide robust reporting. (first/second/third/.. normal forms) Consider High availability groups - SQL server Enterprise / replication processes / etc.
Here are some examples to get you started:
+ Multi-valued dimensions occur when a fact table row may need to refer to more than one row in a dimension table.
+Patients can have multiple diagnoses.
I would definitely start with a good prototyping tool / database design document. Requirement analysis is a must.
This could be handled with proper entity design diagram / database design tools. (ERWIN)
I hope this helps.