>> I am old enough to remember when many large corporations implemented chargebacks. Essentially, each internal department was charged for their usage of IT systems, similar to how we are charged in the cloud. <<
When Jimmy Carter was the governor of Georgia, he created the Department of administrative services (DOAS), which pool together common functions of all the state agencies and departments, such as motor pools, printing and IT services. The rule was that if you could do it with an outside service cheaper than DOAS then you could outsource it. The problem was that the agencies over the decades before Carter had an arrangement where they rotated IBM equipment among agencies because of the leasing arrangements that IBM used in those days.
There was also another little problem with the software licenses. Each agency or department had its own software packages, so putting them into a single, central agency was a disaster (how many different packages for specialized purposes can you learn?). My personal experience as a DOAS employee, was being told to do something for the education department that involve their payroll. It involved my learning to use a package I had never seen before. So I called up the software vendor. I got a recorded message; "the number you have tried to reach is no longer in service" instead of a real person or something. I spent a few days trying to find former education department personnel who had use the package before the consolidation.
The figure I remember from all those decades ago was the state of Georgia lost $5 million (back then that was a real money!) . Then Jimmy Carter failed upward is a bad governor of Georgia to become a bad president of the United States, to finally become a very remarkable admirable ex-presidents of the United States.
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