If you include the Vlookup amount in your second table, you won't even require a case statement.
declare @Table1 table (ID int identity(1,1) primary key, Amount int)
insert into @Table1
Values (75),(22), (0),(105),(6),(11)
declare @Table2 table (Col1 int primary key, Col2 int, AmountVLookup tinyint)
insert into @table2
select t1.Id, t1.Amount, t2.AmountVLookup
from @Table1 t1
join @Table2 t2 on t1.Amount >= Col1 and t1.Amount <= Col2
A SQL JOIN is analogous to an Excel VLookup.
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