Only way I know is to write some powershell to look in C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\<version>\Setup Bootstrap\Log\<date>\Summary_<somestring>.txt
Where <version> is 80/90/100/110/120/130/140/150 etc based on the version of SQL you have installed.
Where <date> is the time it was patched, you will need to find and build the string dynamically based on "get-childobject" or similar
Where <somestring> is again the Server and DateTime is was patched, again you will need to find and build this dynamically.
eg C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\120\Setup Bootstrap\Log\20170707_202354\Summary_MYSERVER_20170707_202354.txt
Once you have the text file look for "Requested action:" if the value is "Patch" you know you had a patch installed. If you want the before and after versions look for PatchLevel (after) and ProductVersion (before), if you want success find the Exit message