To be honest I do not know of any "Standard" test procedure as you are requesting. But you can do a great deal of "testing", checking for "good practices" by examining the T-SQL statements. I would for example.
1. Each SP should include a TRY CATCH block - if some mistakes exist the TRY CATCH can be coded to return a appropriate error message.
2. Each SP should (in my opinion) have a BEGIN / COMMIT / ROLL BACK transaction. To some extent makes each SP check itself and "undo" errors. Try reading this
3. Visual examination to insure that each update SP has the appropriate WHERE clause. (MOST IMPORTANT)
Hope this gets you started.
If everything seems to be going well, you have obviously overlooked something.
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