Looks like it: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/sql/relational-databases/track-changes/about-change-data-capture-sql-server?view=sql-server-ver15
It appears to leverage some of the same processes... but this may refer to the publisher rather than the subscriber:
The logic for change data capture process is embedded in the stored procedure sp_replcmds, an internal server function built as part of sqlservr.exe and also used by transactional replication to harvest changes from the transaction log. In SQL Server and Azure SQL Managed Instance, when change data capture alone is enabled for a database, you create the change data capture SQL Server Agent capture job as the vehicle for invoking sp_replcmds. When replication is also present, the transactional logreader alone is used to satisfy the change data needs for both of these consumers. This strategy significantly reduces log contention when both replication and change data capture are enabled for the same database.
The switch between these two operational modes for capturing change data occurs automatically whenever there is a change in the replication status of a change data capture enabled database.