Good gosh, that's not a short list. You have DISTINCT and TOP in the SELECT list. ON in the JOIN criteria, plus APPLY, PIVOT and UNPIVOT. WHERE of course including GROUP BY, HAVING & ORDER BY. You could also argue for the inclusion of AS, sub-queries, correlated sub-queries and Common Table Expressions (CTE). That's a giant list to provide explanations for in a forum post.
Instead, I'll just point you to the top of the screen. There's a choice up there called "Stairways". Click on that. There are several series of articles on the fundamentals of T-SQL. That will have a very detailed answer what each of the common clauses are.
If you have a more specific question though, ask a way.