Technically speaking, we already have these things.
I picture a team of Agent Smiths (from the Matrix) seeking out rogue programs that seek to wreck havoc inside of the operating environment.
The firewall, pattern scanning, and heuristic analysis used by Norton Anti-Virus, McAfee AV, etc.
Is this where static code analysis is heading? Automated repair, or maybe even real time repair? Could we actually have a software bot that might run through your Entity Framework (EF) application, tracking down SQL Injection vulnerabilities and correcting them? Even at a rudimentary level, I can imagine a bot that examines incorrectly parameterized queries and rewrites the code to properly manage the .NET code.
RedGates's ANTS Profiler
Perhaps at some point we'll even have bots that can understand queries from some application and build stored procedures on the fly that accept parameters, are called the next time a particular method is called, and can even grow to evolve with schema changes.
SQL Server's plan caching and forced parameterization for ad-hoc queries.
These existing technologies don't incorporate Artificial Intelligence fully developed to extent that's described in the article, but it's not really necessary to perform the job. As an analogy: an artifically sentient virus scanner would be like a McDonalds fry cook with an IQ of 130 and a PhD in Applied Chemistry. Maybe such a gifted employee in such a low level position could cook a marginally better batch of fries, but really all you need is someone who can follow directions and stay focussed on the task at hand without a large financial investment.
"Do not seek to follow in the footsteps of the wise. Instead, seek what they sought." - Matsuo Basho