Yes, a Multistatement TVF (as opposed to an Inline one like I had tried earlier, or even a View) seems to work.
So first this:
CREATE FUNCTION dbo.TestWrapper()
RETURNS @Temp TABLE (IntVal INT)
INSERT INTO @Temp (IntVal)
FROM SQL#.Util_GenerateInts(1, 4, 1)
and then this should work:
DECLARE @Table TABLE (IntVal INT NOT NULL)
IF (1 = 0)
INSERT INTO @Table (IntVal)
However, if this is called repeatedly or if the CLR function returns a lot of rows, doing a Multistatement TVF could be inefficient. In that case you would be left with the Stored Procedure option.
Hope that helps.
SQL# - http://www.SQLsharp.com/