xpreaderrorlog doesn't have a column dedicated to the database name, so no, there's no way to filter based on a LIKE statement directly.
there's a pretty good recap of the parameters and usage here:
i would simply stick all the results into a temp table, and then filter the results from there;
something like this looks right to me and my preliminary test:
CREATE TABLE [dbo].[#RESULTS] (
[RESULTSID] INT IDENTITY(1,1) NOT NULL,
[LOGDATE] DATETIME NULL,
[PROCESSINFO] VARCHAR(128) NULL,
[XPTEXT] VARCHAR(max) NULL)
INSERT INTO #RESULTS([LOGDATE] ,[PROCESSINFO],[XPTEXT])
EXEC Xp_readerrorlog 0
SELECT DISTINCT #RESULTS.*
left outer join(SELECT name from sys.databases where name like 'D%') dbz
ON CHARINDEX(dbz.name,#RESULTS.XPTEXT) = 0
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