Hello. I know this is an old post, however, I just experienced this same issue with Microsoft SQL Server 2012 (SP1) - 11.0.3381.0 (X64) Standard Edition. I am still digging to determine if this is a bug.
Error: 608, Severity: 16, State: 1.
2014-03-27 19:50:01.250 spid57 No catalog entry found for partition ID 5908827923301924864 in database 2. The metadata is inconsistent. Run DBCC CHECKDB to check for a metadata corruption.
Ran CHECKDB, found no corruption