As you've noticed, some characters are ignored when building the full-text index (e.g. punctuation marks) and it is not possible to change the behaviour of the indexing engine.
With MSSearch using the LIKE operator is the only alternative.
If, however, searching for these ignored characters is a business requirement, and LIKE is not a viable option for you, you could look at third-party indexing engines.
Matija Lah, SQL Server MVP