The SP installer can update the clustered components on all nodes, plus the non-clustered components on the node on which it is run, all within a single run of the SP installer.
However, I do not think it updates the non-clustered components on nodes that it is not run on. You should therefore plan on running the SP installer on all the nodes that you have SQL Server installed on, to make sure that all non-clustered components are updated.
Original author: SQL Server FineBuild 1-click install and best practice configuration of SQL Server 2017 2016, 2014, 2012, 2008 R2, 2008 and 2005. 14 Mar 2017
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