## ProperCase Function

 Author Message Dohsan Mr or Mrs. 500 Group: General Forum Members Points: 514 Visits: 3384 I'm having an issue converting a scalar function into Table-Valued function and was hoping some of the minds on this forum would be able to help.Here is the original Function:`CREATE FUNCTION [Utility].[f_ProperCase] ( @strIn VARCHAR(255) ) RETURNS VARCHAR(255) AS BEGIN IF @strIn IS NULL RETURN NULL DECLARE @strOut VARCHAR(255), @i INT, @Up BIT, @c VARCHAR(2) SELECT @strOut = '', @i = 0, @Up = 1 WHILE @i <= DATALENGTH(@strIn) BEGIN SET @c = SUBSTRING(@strIn,@i,1) IF @c IN (' ','-','''') BEGIN SET @strOut = @strOut + @c SET @Up = 1 END ELSE BEGIN IF @up = 1 SET @c = UPPER(@c) ELSE SET @c = LOWER(@c) SET @strOut = @strOut + @c SET @Up = 0 END SET @i = @i + 1 END RETURN @strOut END `Here is my attempt at a Table Valued Function to perform the same task:`CREATE FUNCTION [dbo].[ProperCase]( @StrIn VARCHAR(255))RETURNS TABLE WITH SCHEMABINDINGASRETURN SELECT ProperCaseString = ( SELECT CASE WHEN GN.N = 1 THEN UPPER(SUBSTRING(@StrIn,GN.N,1)) WHEN SUBSTRING(@StrIn,GN.N-1,1) IN (' ','-','''') THEN UPPER(SUBSTRING(@StrIn,GN.N,1)) ELSE LOWER(SUBSTRING(@StrIn,GN.N,1)) END AS [text()] FROM dbo.GetNums(1,ISNULL(LEN(@StrIn),1)) AS GN FOR XML PATH('') );GO`Part of the issue is that the XML concatenation is converting the blanks spaces into "& # x 2 0;" . I think I've found a way to correct this and get the output i would like (Shown in the below code):`DECLARE @StringTest TABLE( StrIn VARCHAR(255))INSERT INTO @StringTest(StrIn)VALUES ('thIS iS A StRing'),('ANOTHEr STRING'),('again another string')--Converts special charactersSELECT CA1.ProperCase AS ProperCaseFROM @StringTest AS STCROSS APPLY ( SELECT CASE WHEN GN.N = 1 THEN UPPER(SUBSTRING(ST.StrIn,GN.N,1)) WHEN SUBSTRING(ST.StrIn,GN.N-1,1) IN (' ','-','''') THEN UPPER(SUBSTRING(ST.StrIn,GN.N,1)) WHEN SUBSTRING(ST.StrIn,GN.N,1) = ' ' THEN CHAR(32) ELSE LOWER(SUBSTRING(ST.StrIn,GN.N,1)) END AS [text()] FROM dbo.GetNums(1,ISNULL(LEN(ST.StrIn),1)) AS GN FOR XML PATH('') ) AS CA1 (ProperCase)--Shows special characters i.e. space as a space SELECT CA1.ProperCase.value('/MyString[1]','varchar(8000)') AS ProperCaseFROM @StringTest AS STCROSS APPLY ( SELECT CASE WHEN GN.N = 1 THEN UPPER(SUBSTRING(ST.StrIn,GN.N,1)) WHEN SUBSTRING(ST.StrIn,GN.N-1,1) IN (' ','-','''') THEN UPPER(SUBSTRING(ST.StrIn,GN.N,1)) WHEN SUBSTRING(ST.StrIn,GN.N,1) = ' ' THEN CHAR(32) ELSE LOWER(SUBSTRING(ST.StrIn,GN.N,1)) END AS [text()] FROM dbo.GetNums(1,ISNULL(LEN(ST.StrIn),1)) AS GN FOR XML PATH(''), root('MyString'), type ) AS CA1 (ProperCase)`The main part of the issue though, and the long winded point of this post, is that i cannot seem to reflect this in a function`CREATE FUNCTION [dbo].[ProperCase]( @StrIn VARCHAR(255))RETURNS TABLE WITH SCHEMABINDINGASRETURN SELECT ProperCaseString = ( SELECT SQ1.[text()].value('/MyString[1]','varchar(8000)') FROM (SELECT CASE WHEN GN.N = 1 THEN UPPER(SUBSTRING(@StrIn,GN.N,1)) WHEN SUBSTRING(@StrIn,GN.N-1,1) IN (' ','-','''') THEN UPPER(SUBSTRING(@StrIn,GN.N,1)) WHEN SUBSTRING(@StrIn,GN.N,1) = ' ' THEN ' ' ELSE LOWER(SUBSTRING(@StrIn,GN.N,1)) END AS [text()] FROM dbo.GetNums(1,ISNULL(LEN(@StrIn),1)) AS GN FOR XML PATH(''), root('MyString'), type ) AS SQ1 );GO`I get the follow error when I try to create the function:`Msg 8155, Level 16, State 2, Procedure ProperCase, Line 24No column name was specified for column 1 of 'SQ1'.Msg 207, Level 16, State 1, Procedure ProperCase, Line 13Invalid column name 'text()'.`Any suggestions/Improvements welcome! Dohsan Mr or Mrs. 500 Group: General Forum Members Points: 514 Visits: 3384 Think I may have figured it out:`CREATE FUNCTION [dbo].[ProperCase]( @StrIn VARCHAR(255))RETURNS TABLE WITH SCHEMABINDINGASRETURN SELECT ProperCaseString = ( (SELECT CASE WHEN GN.N = 1 THEN UPPER(SUBSTRING(@StrIn,GN.N,1)) WHEN SUBSTRING(@StrIn,GN.N-1,1) IN (' ','-','''') THEN UPPER(SUBSTRING(@StrIn,GN.N,1)) ELSE LOWER(SUBSTRING(@StrIn,GN.N,1)) END AS [text()] FROM dbo.GetNums(1,ISNULL(LEN(@StrIn),1)) AS GN FOR XML PATH(''), TYPE ).value('.','varchar(8000)') );`Now to see if it actually is an improvement!And if anyone has anything to add please do. Ed Wagner SSChampion Group: General Forum Members Points: 10315 Visits: 9594 You have definitely peaked my interest with this one. I've been playing with adapting Jeff Moden's DelimitedSplit8K function covered in the article at http://www.sqlservercentral.com/articles/Tally+Table/72993, but I don't have your solution yet. I'm running into the case where multiple trailing spaces is killing it. Then there's the matter of allowing for more than one delimiter at once. I don't know if I'm running down a rabbit hole with no hope here, but it is definitely cool stuff. :-DI'm curious as to the performance when using the XML approach versus the tally table approach, so please post your performance testing results. Tally Tables - Performance PersonifiedString Splitting with True PerformanceBest practices on how to ask questions Luis Cazares SSCrazy Eights Group: General Forum Members Points: 8564 Visits: 18143 Hi,I'm not sure what your GetNums function looks like. I used the DelimitedSplit8K which you can find in the following article which explains how it works. http://www.sqlservercentral.com/articles/Tally+Table/72993Here's my option for you that seems to be doing what you need.`CREATE FUNCTION [dbo].[ProperCase]( @StrIn VARCHAR(255))RETURNS TABLE WITH SCHEMABINDINGASRETURNSELECT STUFF((SELECT ' ' + UPPER( LEFT( split.Item, 1)) + LOWER(SUBSTRING( split.Item, 2, 255)) word FROM dbo.DelimitedSplit8K( @StrIn, ' ') split FOR XML PATH(''),TYPE).value('.', 'varchar(255)'), 1, 1, '') AS ProperCased` Luis C.General Disclaimer:Are you seriously taking the advice and code from someone from the internet without testing it? Do you at least understand it? Or can it easily kill your server?How to post data/code on a forum to get the best help: Option 1 / Option 2 Sean Lange SSCoach Group: General Forum Members Points: 16626 Visits: 17024 Can you post GetNums? There have been a few different proper case functions around here over the years. They are always a challenge because sometime you want every word capitalized and sometimes you want Title Case. Parade Of The HorriblesParade of the HorriblesSubtle difference but makes a huge difference.What about things like Washington D.C.? _______________________________________________________________Need help? Help us help you. Read the article at http://www.sqlservercentral.com/articles/Best+Practices/61537/ for best practices on asking questions.Need to split a string? Try Jeff Moden's splitter.Cross Tabs and Pivots, Part 1 – Converting Rows to Columns Cross Tabs and Pivots, Part 2 - Dynamic Cross Tabs Understanding and Using APPLY (Part 1)Understanding and Using APPLY (Part 2) Dohsan Mr or Mrs. 500 Group: General Forum Members Points: 514 Visits: 3384 dbo.GetNums is as per below, straight from one of Jeff's discussions/articles I believe:`CREATE FUNCTION [dbo].[GetNums]( @low AS BIGINT, @high AS BIGINT)RETURNS TABLE WITH SCHEMABINDINGASRETURN WITH L0 AS (SELECT c FROM (VALUES(1),(1)) AS D(c)), L1 AS (SELECT 1 AS c FROM L0 AS A CROSS JOIN L0 AS B), L2 AS (SELECT 1 AS c FROM L1 AS A CROSS JOIN L1 AS B), L3 AS (SELECT 1 AS c FROM L2 AS A CROSS JOIN L2 AS B), L4 AS (SELECT 1 AS c FROM L3 AS A CROSS JOIN L3 AS B), L5 AS (SELECT 1 AS c FROM L4 AS A CROSS JOIN L4 AS B), Nums AS (SELECT ROW_NUMBER() OVER(ORDER BY (SELECT NULL)) AS rownum FROM L5) SELECT TOP(@high - @low + 1) @low + rownum - 1 AS n FROM Nums ORDER BY rownum;`For our purposes capitalising each Letter of a word is acceptable. Dohsan Mr or Mrs. 500 Group: General Forum Members Points: 514 Visits: 3384 Trying to piece together some test data, some Uppercase letters with some spaces inserted:`IF OBJECT_ID('tempdb..#ProperTest','U') IS NOT NULLDROP TABLE #ProperTest;SELECT STUFF(STUFF(CHAR(ABS(CHECKSUM(NEWID()))%26+65) + CHAR(ABS(CHECKSUM(NEWID()))%26+65) + CHAR(ABS(CHECKSUM(NEWID()))%26+65) + CHAR(ABS(CHECKSUM(NEWID()))%26+65) + CHAR(ABS(CHECKSUM(NEWID()))%26+65) + CHAR(ABS(CHECKSUM(NEWID()))%26+65) + CHAR(ABS(CHECKSUM(NEWID()))%26+65) + CHAR(ABS(CHECKSUM(NEWID()))%26+65) + CHAR(ABS(CHECKSUM(NEWID()))%26+65) + CHAR(ABS(CHECKSUM(NEWID()))%26+65) + CHAR(ABS(CHECKSUM(NEWID()))%26+65) + CHAR(ABS(CHECKSUM(NEWID()))%26+65) + CHAR(ABS(CHECKSUM(NEWID()))%26+65) + CHAR(ABS(CHECKSUM(NEWID()))%26+65) + CHAR(ABS(CHECKSUM(NEWID()))%26+65) + CHAR(ABS(CHECKSUM(NEWID()))%26+65),N%16+1,1,' '),N%3+1,1,' ') AS StringINTO #ProperTestFROM dbo.GetNums(1,300000);`Run the Code`PRINT 'Old Method Scalar Function'SELECT PT.String, Utility.f_ProperCase(PT.String) AS ProperFROM #ProperTest AS PT; PRINT 'Dohsan'SELECT PT.String, CA1.ProperCaseStringFROM #ProperTest AS PTCROSSAPPLY dbo.ProperCase(PT.String) AS CA1; PRINT 'Luis'SELECT PT.String, CA1.ProperCasedFROM #ProperTest AS PTCROSSAPPLY dbo.ProperCase1(PT.String) AS CA1;DECLARE @TestVar VARCHAR(16);DECLARE @StartTime DATETIME; PRINT 'Old Method Scalar Function' SELECT @StartTime = GETDATE();SELECT @TestVar = Utility.f_ProperCase(PT.String)FROM #ProperTest AS PT; PRINT CAST(DATEDIFF(ms,@StartTime,GETDATE()) AS VARCHAR) + ' MilliSeconds'; PRINT 'Dohsan' SELECT @StartTime = GETDATE();SELECT @TestVar = CA1.ProperCaseStringFROM #ProperTest AS PTCROSSAPPLY dbo.ProperCase(PT.String) AS CA1; PRINT CAST(DATEDIFF(ms,@StartTime,GETDATE()) AS VARCHAR) + ' MilliSeconds'; PRINT 'Luis' SELECT @StartTime = GETDATE();SELECT @TestVar = CA1.ProperCasedFROM #ProperTest AS PTCROSSAPPLY dbo.ProperCase1(PT.String) AS CA1; PRINT CAST(DATEDIFF(ms,@StartTime,GETDATE()) AS VARCHAR) + ' MilliSeconds';`Results:`Old Method Scalar Function47843 MilliSecondsDohsan18906 MilliSecondsLuis4710 MilliSeconds` Luis Cazares SSCrazy Eights Group: General Forum Members Points: 8564 Visits: 18143 That's nice Dohsan,Just make sure my function gets the correct results as it won't check for characters different than spaces when trying to capitalize the first letter of each word. Luis C.General Disclaimer:Are you seriously taking the advice and code from someone from the internet without testing it? Do you at least understand it? Or can it easily kill your server?How to post data/code on a forum to get the best help: Option 1 / Option 2 Dohsan Mr or Mrs. 500 Group: General Forum Members Points: 514 Visits: 3384 Yes, I'll have to play around with it a little more when I have some time tomorrow.I must say i hadn't thought about using the splitter to separate the words out, so +1 for you and ed wagner for having that idea! Ed Wagner SSChampion Group: General Forum Members Points: 10315 Visits: 9594 Luis, your function is much simpler than mine was working out to be. I was working on creating a derivative on the DelimitedSplit8K function and was most of the way there, but the presence of multiple trailing spaces was giving me fits during testing. Also, the multiple delimiters were definitely impacting performance.I like the way you used the unaltered and well-tested function and manipulated the output of it. Mine would have required testing to make sure all bases were covered. Tally Tables - Performance PersonifiedString Splitting with True PerformanceBest practices on how to ask questions