L' Eomot Inversé (12/6/2012)
That's still missing ij and IJ (maybe Hugo will tell us whether Dutch generally uses these ligatures or has generally switched to non-ligatured representation).
When I was young, Dutch typewriters (and -when I was slightly less young- even some Dutch computer keyboards) had a seperate key for the ligature ij. Rather obviously, actually, since the ij is the 25th letter of the Dutch alphabet. And in case you wonder where we then have left the y - we don't. The y is not officially a letter of the Dutch alphabet, even though we do use it in some words, such a yoghurt. Yes, I agree that this is weird.
(By the way, when I tried to find confirming sources for this on the internet, I could not. All pages I visited either claim that the y is the 25th letter, or list both ij as 25th and y as 26th letter. This is definitely NOT how I learned it in elementary school!)
However, that is now a thing of the past. Nobody uses ligature ij anymore. (And frankly, in a proportional font you would not see the difference anyway!) That is probably why all internet pages about the Dutch alphabet list y as the 25th letter instead of ligature ij.
German printers once used a ue ligature (originally with the e above the u, instead of to the right of it) in place of ü, but that is not used now (at least I believe not: but people with old typewriters which can't produce ü still sometimes use ue - as two separated characters, not a ligature).
As far as I know, German always considers an e after a vowel equivalent to an unlaut above that vowel - so ae, oe and ue are equivalent to ä, ö and ü. (German never uses an umlaut above an i or e, so ee and ie are just plain ee and ie).
Hugo Kornelis, SQL Server MVP
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