Thanks for the question, Ron. And thanks Koen for the extra link.
In case someone is wondering why the different data types have no effect - Ron included the relevant link, but didn't explicitly describe this in his explanation, so I will. The data types are compared to find the one with the highest precedence. It's char(2) vs bigint, so if you check Ron's link, you'll see that bigint wins. SQL Server then checks to see if implicit conversion is allowed for char to biging; this is the case, so the query compiles and a plan is created. During execution time, all char(2) values are converted to bigint, and then the INTERSECT operation is carried out.
If you change one of the values in the char(2) column to be something that doesn't convert to biging (e.g. 'a'), you'll get a run-time error.
Hugo Kornelis, SQL Server/Data Platform MVP (2006-2016)
Visit my SQL Server blog: http://sqlblog.com/blogs/hugo_kornelis