I had the same issue and fixed it.
My problem was when launching Configuration Manager I got an error message in relation to WMI which actually caused the problem you saw in powershell. After I ran:
mofcomp "C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft SQL Server\100\Shared\sqlmgmproviderxpsp2up.mof"
Both issues were fixed. I am running sql2008 r2 on win 2008 r2. You might need to change the path above.
By the way, why I found out this was because I tried to connect to a different instance on a different server, I didn't get the error. And that reminded me checking Configuration Manager because I had this issue before.
Let me know if this is also the case for you.