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Replaying workloads with the RML Utilities

In today's weblog posting I want to talk about replaying SQL Server workloads with the RML Utilities. RML Utilities stands for Replay Markup Language Utilities and are provided by Microsoft as a free download. You can download them here: http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/en/details.aspx?FamilyID=7EDFA95A-A32F-440F-A3A8-5160C8DBE926. I have first encountered the RML Utilities when I read the book "Professional SQL Server 2008 Internals and Troubleshooting" (ISBN 978-0470484289) written by Christian Bolton, Justin Langford, Brent Ozar, James Rowland-Jones, and Steven Wort.

The RML Utilities contains a replaying engine that replays SQL Server workloads in real-time. The above mentioned book states the following on page 462 about those tools: "RML Utilities allow you to replay traces at the same rate they were captured. That means you get a better representation of true user activity and server workload than you do with other tools that condense the statements and execute them in sequence".

That is also the real advantage of the RML Utilities: Replaying traces at the same rate they were captured! I have several clients that have really hard problems when they want to replay workloads, e.g. in a test environment when they have applied new indexes for performance optimization. SQL Server Profiler just replays workloads, but you don't get the identical workload at the same rate replayed, so you are not able to reproduce some scenarios like locking/blocking.

For a recent customer engagement I've prepared a demo where I wanted to show how you can replay a workload that was generated from a .NET application. This sounds very easy, especially when you have read chapter 12 of the above mentioned book, but there are really some awful pitfalls that you have to know when you are working with the RML Utilities and SQL Server workloads generated by .NET applications. With this weblog posting I want to show you those pitfalls and what workarounds you have to do to get everything working fine.

Let's start by the configuration needed to capture a SQL Trace for the RML Utilities. Everything that you have to do is to setup a server-side SQL Trace and capture everything in a .TRC file. The biggest problem here is the fact that you have to capture a lot of different events, which means that your .TRC files are getting really large. I've seen traces with several 100 GB of data in it. The RML Utilities are coming with a SQL script file that you can use as a basis for capturing a SQL Trace (TraceCaptureDef.sql):

create procedure #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID int, @iEventID int



set nocount on

declare @iColID int

declare @iColIDMax int

declare @on bit

set @on= 1

set @iColID = 1

set @iColIDMax = 64

while(@iColID <= @iColIDMax)


exec sp_trace_setevent @TraceID, @iEventID, @iColID, @on

set @iColID = @iColID + 1




-- Create a Queue

declare @rc int

declare @TraceID int

declare @maxfilesize bigint

set @maxfilesize = 250-- An optimal size for tracing and handling the files

-- Please replace the text InsertFileNameHere, with an appropriate

-- file name prefixed by a path, e.g., c:\MyFolder\MyTrace. The .trc extension

-- will be appended to the filename automatically.

exec @rc = sp_trace_create @TraceID output, 2 /* rollover*/, N'InsertFileNameHere', @maxfilesize, NULL

if (@rc != 0) goto error

declare @off bit

set @off = 0

-- Set the events

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 10 -- RPC Completed

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 11 -- RPC Started

declare @strVersion varchar(10)

set @strVersion = cast(SERVERPROPERTY('ProductVersion') as varchar(10))

if( (select cast( substring(@strVersion, 0, charindex('.', @strVersion)) as int)) >= 9)


exec sp_trace_setevent @TraceID, 10, 1, @off -- No Text for RPC, only Binary for performance

exec sp_trace_setevent @TraceID, 11, 1, @off -- No Text for RPC, only Binary for performance


exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 44 -- SP:StmtStarting

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 45 -- SP:StmtCompleted

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 100 -- RPC Output Parameter

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 12 -- SQL Batch Completed

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 13 -- SQL Batch Starting

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 40 -- SQL:StmtStarting

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 41 -- SQL:StmtCompleted

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 17 -- Existing Connection

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 14 -- Audit Login

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 15 -- Audit Logout

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 16 -- Attention

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 19 -- DTC Transaction

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 50 -- SQL Transaction

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 50 -- SQL Transaction

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 181 -- Tran Man Event

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 182 -- Tran Man Event

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 183 -- Tran Man Event

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 184 -- Tran Man Event

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 185 -- Tran Man Event

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 186 -- Tran Man Event

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 187 -- Tran Man Event

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 188 -- Tran Man Event

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 191 -- Tran Man Event

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 192 -- Tran Man Event

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 98 -- Stats Profile

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 53 -- Cursor Open

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 70 -- Cursor Prepare

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 71 -- Prepare SQL

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 73 -- Unprepare SQL

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 74 -- Cursor Execute

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 76 -- Cursor Implicit Conversion

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 77 -- Cursor Unprepare

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 78 -- Cursor Close

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 22 -- Error Log

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 25 -- Deadlock

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 27 -- Lock Timeout

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 60 -- Lock Escalation

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 28 -- MAX DOP

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 33 -- Exceptions

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 34 -- Cache Miss

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 37 -- Recompile

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 39 -- Deprocated Events

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 55 -- Hash Warning

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 58 -- Auto Stats

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 67 -- Execution Warnings

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 69 -- Sort Warnings

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 79 -- Missing Col Stats

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 80 -- Missing Join Pred

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 81 -- Memory change event

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 92 -- Data File Auto Grow

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 93 -- Log File Auto Grow

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 116 -- DBCC Event

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 125 -- Deprocation Events

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 126 -- Deprocation Final

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 127 -- Spills

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 137 -- Blocked Process Threshold

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 150 -- Trace file closed

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 166 -- Statement Recompile

exec #tmpPPEventEnable @TraceID, 196 -- CLR Assembly Load

-- Filter out all sp_trace based commands to the replay does not start this trace

-- Text filters can be expensive so you may want to avoid the filtering and just

-- remote the sp_trace commands from the RML files once processed.

exec sp_trace_setfilter @TraceID, 1, 1, 7, N'%sp_trace%'

-- Set the trace status to start

exec sp_trace_setstatus @TraceID, 1


exec sp_trace_setstatus 2, 0

exec sp_trace_setstatus 2, 2


print 'Issue the following command(s) when you are ready to stop the tracing activity'

print 'exec sp_trace_setstatus ' + cast(@TraceID as varchar) + ', 0'

print 'exec sp_trace_setstatus ' + cast(@TraceID as varchar) + ', 2'

goto finish


select ErrorCode=@rc


--select * from ::fn_trace_geteventinfo(@TraceID)

select * from sys.traces


As you can see from the previous listing, you have to collect a lot of different events from SQL Trace that are needed for the replaying functionality. If you don't capture them, you are not able to replay the captured workload. A good practice here is to use rollover files, to keep the size of the .TRC files manageable.

After you have configured and started your SQL Trace, you can use your .NET application that interacts with SQL Server. As soon as you have captured the relevant workload you can stop and delete the SQL Trace from SQL Server. Inside your file system you have now your .TRC files with the captured workload.

And now the real fun begins. If you follow the descriptions from chapter 14, you will fail immediately in replaying the captured workload. The problem is that the RML Utilities have several bugs/problems, when they have to replay workloads that were captured from .NET applications that are connecting to SQL Server through MARS (Multiple Active Result Sets). I have encountered those problems, because for my demonstration I have used a .NET application (which uses MARS) that I have written in the year 2006. I just wanted to be realistic as possible J. All those problems are described in the following weblog posting from the CSS SQL Server Engineers: http://blogs.msdn.com/b/psssql/archive/2009/01/21/prb-rml-utilities-readtrace-and-how-to-workaround-mars.aspx.

The first thing that you have to do with your SQL Trace workload is to load it into a trace table in a SQL Server database through the following command:

SELECT * INTO TraceTable FROM fn_trace_gettable('D:\Workload.trc', 0)


Please keep in mind that this process could also take some time when you are working with large .TRC files. After you have loaded the trace to your trace table, you have to change it as described in the above mentioned weblog posting:

UPDATE TraceTable



WHEN RequestID = 0 THEN



32768 + (SPID * 20) + (RequestID % 20)


RequestID = 0


Finally you can open the trace table in SQL Server Profiler and export everything to a new .TRC file in the file system. Again this could take a large amount of time when you are working with a large trace table.

In the next step you can now convert the changed .TRC file to RML files that can be replayed against a SQL Server instance. For that purpose you can use the readtrace.exe utility along with the trace flag T28. See the following command line:

readtrace.exe -Id:\MyNewTrace.trc -od:\PerfTesting_Output -T28

The problem that I encountered with this approach is the fact that I get RML files that can't be replayed against SQL Server. Here is the reason: each RML file includes the SPID in the file name, and I got RML files like "SQL33333.rml" – and 33333 is an invalid SPID in SQL Server, because SQL Server can "only" handle 32767 connections. For that reason I have changed the file names to SPIDs that are supported by SQL Server. If you have a large amount of RML files, it would also make sense to write a simple program which renames the RML files to valid file names.

After I have changed each file name to a valid SPID, you are now able to replay the workload with the ostress.exe utility:

ostress.exe -id:\PerfTesting_Output\*.rml -mreplay -csample.ini

As you can see you have to do a lot of things when you want to replay workloads from .NET applications against SQL Server that are using MARS. With this approach it is very easy to check in a test environment what the impacts of some configuration changes are or how your application reacts when you are adding or deleting indexes.


Klaus Aschenbrenner

Klaus Aschenbrenner provides independent SQL Server Consulting Services across Europe and the US. Klaus works with the .NET Framework and especially with the SQL Server 2005/2008 from the very beginnings. In the years 2004 - 2005 Klaus was entitled with the MVP award from Microsoft for his tremendous support in the .NET Community. Klaus has also written the book Pro SQL Server 2008 Service Broker which was published by Apress in the Summer of 2008. Further information about Klaus you can find on his homepage at http://www.SQLpassion.at. He also twitters at http://twitter.com/Aschenbrenner.


Posted by ThomasLL on 21 June 2011

Good post, understand everything.


Posted by Shurgenz on 12 April 2013

Hello, I was trying to create the RML files from the trace. I've got the trace from our prod server keeping running it within 10 minutes. I've collected ~170 trace files of 250MB each.

Okay, trying to get the RML files I faced with the next troubles:

ReadTrace.exe -o"input" -I"traces\trace.trc" -SSQLSERVER1\SQLSERVER1 -a

I've got the error:

04/12/13 12:36:21.533 [0X00002340] A serious error condition (true == pVariant->FIsUnknownType()) has been encountered.

Utility Error: Attempt to use an invalid variant type

File: .\rpcbinary.cpp

Line: 264

Return Address: 0x000007F77A774212

Function: FConvertNCharStringFromRPC

Then, I was trying to skip the first trace, starting from the second:

ReadTrace.exe -o"input" -I"traces\trace_1.trc" -SSQLSERVER1\SQLSERVER1 -a

and got the next error:

ERROR: SPID was detected using Multiple Active Result Sets (MARS).  ReadTrace can only process this set of trace files with -T35 enabled

OK, I've set the -T35 parameter... but got the error, that ReadTrace with this param can't produce .RML files.

Please help me to figure out the errors

Thank You in advance

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