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Bulk Data Load Using OLEDB Template Libraries

By Kumar Part,

Bulk data load using OLEDB Template Libraries

OLEDB provides a way to access data in Component Object Model (COM) environment. OLEDB template library wraps around OLEDB interfaces and simplifies the data access. Broadly, this template library can be classified into two categories:

  • Provider Templates
  • Consumer Templates

Provider is a component which exposes a set of COM interfaces for a data store, if you are writing a provider, you should be using the provider templates. Your data store access program consumes the provider interfaces; hence it is called the consumer.

The sample of this article is a consumer, which consumes OLEDB interfaces that are exposed by the SQLOLEDB provider. The SQLOLEDB provider is a native provide for Microsoft SQL Server and shipped along with SQL Server as well as with MDAC libraries. The sample uses both OLEDB template library and direct OLEDB interfaces because some of the SQLOLEDB provider specific interfaces are not abstracted in the OLEDB template library.

Scenario

The scenario that is considered for this article is, to bulk load data from a pre-defined data source to a dynamic data schema. The pre-defined data are hardwired in the sample.

In the given scenario where you do not know the target table name to bulk load data until the table name is entered by the user, you need to use CDynamicAccessor template. This template enables you to access data when you do not know the table schema during the compile time. Similarly to bulk load data, SQLOLEDB provider specific IRowsetFastLoad interface is used.

Initialization

Before calling any OLEDB interface, the COM layer has to be initialized. To initialize the COM layer call CoInitializeEx() method as shown below:

…………………………………………………………….
#if _WIN32_WINNT >= 0x0400
HRESULT hRes = CoInitializeEx(NULL, COINIT_MULTITHREADED);
#else
HRESULT hRes = CoInitialize(NULL);
#endif
…………………………………………………………….

Opening the Database Connection

Before opening a database connection, you need to set the connection properties like, instance name, database name, user name and password. The following code snippet uses windows authentication.
…………………………………………………………….
CDBPropSet dbconnection;
CDataSource m_cds;
dbconnection.AddProperty(DBPROP_AUTH_INTEGRATED, OLESTR(“SSP1”);
dbconnection.AddProperty(DBPROP_INIT_DATASOURCE,OLESTR(“instance name”)
dbconnection.AddProperty(DBPROP_INIT_CATALOG,”db name”);
 
hr = m_cds.Open(_T("SQLOLEDB.1"), &dbconnection);
…………………………………………………………….

Opening the Session

Before opening the session, initialize the session for the bulk load operation. To set the session property for the connection, get the property interface by querying the connection. Please note, the connection was opened by using OLEDB template, to set the bulk load session property for that connection, you need to use OLEDB interface directly.
…………………………………………………………….
CComPtr<IDBProperties> m_spProps;

hr = m_cds.m_spInit->QueryInterface(IID_IDBProperties, (void**)&m_spProps);
 
CDBPropSet m_dbinitProps;
m_dbinitProps.SetGUID(DBPROPSET_SQLSERVERDATASOURCE);
m_dbinitProps.AddProperty(SSPROP_ENABLEFASTLOAD, true);
 
hr = m_spProps->SetProperties(1, &m_dbinitProps);
…………………………………………………………….

You can set the following properties to enable the bulk load operation for a session

SSPROP_FASTLOADKEEPIDENTITY, to preserve the identify information and SSPROP_FASTLOADKEEPNULLS, to preserve the null value.

Once the connection’s session property is set, open the session as shown in the following code snippet:
…………………………………………………………….
hr = m_session.Open(m_cds);
…………………………………………………………….
Bulk Load Interface
Bulk load interface is associated with a table; in this scenario the target table comes from the user input. To obtain a bulk load (or fast load interface) query the session’s rowset property as shown below:

……………………………………………………………
#define DBINITCONSTANTS
…….
DBID tid;
tid.uName.pwszName=<table name>;
tid.eKind = DBKIND_NAME;
CComPtr<IRowsetFastLoad> m_pIFastLoad;
 
m_session.m_spOpenRowset->OpenRowset(NULL,& tid, NULL, IID_IRowsetFastLoad,0, NULL, (LPUNKNOWN*) &m_pIFastLoad);
…………………………………………………………….

The interface IRowsetFastLoad is SQLOLEDB provider specific and it is defined in sqloledb.h file. In order to use this interface, define DBINITCONSTANTS macro in your consumer application; otherwise you will get a compilation error.

Binding Columns and Getting Accessor

The IRowsetFastLoad interface exposes table schema in a tabular form and the consumer which consumes this interface can get the schema information and bind to that schema.

What is binding?
Binding is a data structure used by the consumer to communicate data to the provider. So each binding contains the information about the consumer buffer, like data length, precision etc.

Since, in this case the table is not known until runtime, we need to use dynamic binding method that is implemented in CDynamicAccessor template. If you look into atldbcli.h, you will find the following method:

…………………………………………………………….
BindColumns(IUnknown* pUnk)
…………………………………………………………….
 
This method can take an unknown interface, in this case IRowsetFastLoad. >From the IRowsetFastLoad interface, this method gets the column information and binds each column of a given table.

This method binds BLOB and string columns and calls CAccessorBase::Bind() method to bind the rest of the column types. After binding, this method allocates the buffer for CAccessorBase::m_pBuffer.

At last, BindColumns() method calls CAccessorBase::BindEntries() method to create the accessor.

So, what is an accessor?
Accessor is a data structure; it contains the layout of data row for a data store. For each column an accessor contains binding, in other words accessor is a collection of bindings.

Laying out Data

Binding of each column comprises three parts which are value, length and status. Consumer need to set all three parts for each column. Value part represents the actual data value, length part represents the data length and the status part must be one of the following:

DBSTATUS_S_OK: The value is not null and the provider has to use consumer’s value
DBSTATUS_S_ISNULL: The value is NULL
DBSTATUS_S_IGNORE: The provider ignores the value and length and does not change the column value
DBSTATUS_S_DEFAULT: The provider has to use the default value from IRowsetFastLoad:: InsertRow() method and ignores the consumer data buffer value and length.

To layout data effectively, the CDynamicAccessor provides set of methods as shown below:

…………………………………………………………….
CDynamicAccessor cda;
…..
cda.SetLength(colOrdinal,colLength);
 
cda.SetStatus(colOrdinal, DBSTATUS_S_OK);
 
cda.SetValue(colOrdinal,colValue);
 
…………………………………………………………….
 
The CDynamicAccessor::SetLength() method takes column ordinal and the respective data length.

What is happening inside the SetLength() method?

SetLength() method changes the column ordinal into an index of the column info array m_pColumnInfo by calling CDynamicAccessor:: TranslateColumnNo() method. The column info array is a member of CDynamicAccessor. So when you pass first column, whose ordinal value set to ‘1’, gets translated into 0. After this translation, SetLength() method calls CDynamicAccessor ::_GetDataPtr() method to get the buffer pointer and copies the data length.

What is happening inside the SetStatus()method?

Like, SetLength() this method also translates the column ordinal into an index of the column info array and gets the buffer pointer by calling CDynamicAccessor ::_GetDataPtr() to copy the status.

Why SetValue() cannot be used to copy the data?

To copy the actual data value, Microsoft recommends not to use SetValue() method because CDynamicAccessor::SetValue() does not handle the string value correctly. For more information read the KB article 201390 from http://support.microsoft.com/?id=201390.
 
As MS KB 201390 suggested, I changed the code as follows:
…………………………………………………………….
cda.TranslateColumnNo(colOrdinal);
 
void *pDataBuffer=(void*)cda._GetDataPtr(colOrdinal);
 
memcpy(pDataBuffer,colValue,colLength); …………………………………………………………….

So, before laying out the value, you need to translate the column number into column info array index by calling the CDynamicAccessor:: TranslateColumnNo() method explictly. After this translation call CDynamicAccessor:: _GetDataPtr() method to get the buffer and then directly copy the data into that buffer.

Inserting data row
After you laid out data for each column, call the IRowsetFastLoad:: InsertRow() method as shown below:
…………………………………………………………….
m_pIFastLoad->InsertRow(cda.GetHAccessor(0),cda.GetBuffer());
 
hr=m_pIFastLoad->Commit(FALSE);
 
…………………………………………………………….

Note, the InsertRow() method calls the CDynamicAccessor::GetHAccessor() method to get the accessor handle and CDynamicAccessor::GetBuffer() to get the buffer.

To do the batch insert, call IRowsetFastLoad::Commi()by passing FALSE parameter. If the value true is passed the batch of inserted or loaded data will be committed. So to commit the loaded data, call the commit method as shown below:
…………………………………………………………….
hr=m_pIFastLoad->Commit(TRUE);
…………………………………………………………….
 
Un-Initialization
Finally release the accessor handle and close the accessor, session and connection objects by calling the respective close() method as shown below:
 
…………………………………………………………….
cda.Close();
 
m_pIFastLoad.Release();
 
m_session.Close();
 
m_cds.Close();
 
CoUninitialize();

…………………………………………………………….

Sample

To build the sample successfully, you need to include MDAC 2.7, oledb include and lib folders in your project settings. Here is the sample code:
--------------------------include file----------------------------------------------------------
#ifndef _FASTLOAD_H_
#define _FASTLOAD_H_
 
#include <iostream>
 
//#define UNICODE
#define _WIN32_DCOM//For CoInitializeEx
#define DBINITCONSTANTS //For CLSIDToProgID
//#define INITGUID
 
#include <atldbcli.h>
#include <sqloledb.h>
 
using namespace std;
 
#include <string>
 
class CFastLoad:public CComModule
{
public:
 
CFastLoad()
{}
 
void InitFastLoadATL();
void UnInitFastLoadATL();
HRESULT OpenDataSource(const string& instance,
const string& database,
const string& tablename);
 
BOOL BindData(void* colValue,int colLength,ULONG colOrdinal);
 
HRESULT InsertData();
 
HRESULT FinishLoad();
 
CDataSource m_cds;
CSession m_session;
DBID m_TableId;
CComPtr<IRowsetFastLoad> m_pIFastLoad;
CDynamicAccessor cda;
 
BYTE *pvData;
 
};
#endif
 
--------------Source File--------------------------------------
 
#include "fastload.h"
 
OLECHAR* ConvertToWCHAR(char *psz)
{
if(!psz)
return NULL;
 
LONG bstrLen=NULL;

bstrLen = MultiByteToWideChar(CP_ACP, 0, psz, -1, NULL, 0);

WCHAR* pwszBuffer = (WCHAR*)CoTaskMemAlloc((bstrLen+1)*sizeof(WCHAR));
 

MultiByteToWideChar(CP_ACP, 0, psz, -1, pwszBuffer, bstrLen+1);

return pwszBuffer;
}
 
void CFastLoad::InitFastLoadATL()
{
#if _WIN32_WINNT >= 0x0400
HRESULT hRes = CoInitializeEx(NULL, COINIT_MULTITHREADED);
#else
HRESULT hRes = CoInitialize(NULL);
#endif
 
}
 
void CFastLoad::UnInitFastLoadATL()
{
 
cda.Close();
 
m_pIFastLoad.Release();
 
m_session.Close();
 
m_cds.Close();
 
CoUninitialize();
}
 
HRESULT CFastLoad::OpenDataSource(const string& instance,
const string& database,
const string& tablename)
{
CDBPropSet dbconnection;
HRESULT hr;
 
OLECHAR* w_instance=ConvertToWCHAR((char*)instance.data()); ;
OLECHAR* w_database=ConvertToWCHAR((char*)database.data());;
 
dbconnection.SetGUID(DBPROPSET_DBINIT);
dbconnection.AddProperty(DBPROP_AUTH_INTEGRATED, OLESTR("SSPI"));
dbconnection.AddProperty(DBPROP_INIT_DATASOURCE,w_instance);
dbconnection.AddProperty(DBPROP_INIT_CATALOG,w_database);
 
hr = m_cds.Open(_T("SQLOLEDB.1"), &dbconnection);
 
if(FAILED(hr))
{
printf("Unable to get the connection");
return hr;
}
 
CoTaskMemFree(w_instance);
CoTaskMemFree(w_database);
 
// Enable Fast Load
CComPtr<IDBProperties> m_spProps;

hr = m_cds.m_spInit->QueryInterface(IID_IDBProperties, (void**)&m_spProps);
if (FAILED(hr)) return hr;
 
CDBPropSet m_dbinitProps;
m_dbinitProps.SetGUID(DBPROPSET_SQLSERVERDATASOURCE);
m_dbinitProps.AddProperty(SSPROP_ENABLEFASTLOAD, true);
 
hr = m_spProps->SetProperties(1, &m_dbinitProps);
if (FAILED(hr)) return hr;
 
hr = m_session.Open(m_cds);
if (FAILED(hr)) return hr;
 
// Open the table
m_TableId.uName.pwszName=ConvertToWCHAR((char*)tablename.data());
m_TableId.eKind = DBKIND_NAME;
 
hr = m_session.m_spOpenRowset->OpenRowset(NULL,&m_TableId,NULL,
IID_IRowsetFastLoad,
0, NULL,
(LPUNKNOWN*) &m_pIFastLoad);
if (FAILED(hr)) return hr;
 
hr=cda.BindColumns(m_pIFastLoad);
if (FAILED(hr)) return hr;

return hr;

}
 
BOOL CFastLoad::BindData(void* colValue,int colLength,ULONG colOrdinal)
{
 
if(!cda.SetLength(colOrdinal,colLength)) return FALSE;
 
if(colLength == 0 && colValue == NULL) /* blanks & NULLs need to distinguished */
{
if(!cda.SetStatus(colOrdinal,3)) return FALSE;
}
else
{
if(!cda.SetStatus(colOrdinal,0)) return FALSE;
}
 
// if(!cda.SetValue(colOrdinal,colValue))return FALSE;
 
cda.TranslateColumnNo(colOrdinal);
 
void *pDataBuffer=(void*)cda._GetDataPtr(colOrdinal);
 
memcpy(pDataBuffer,colValue,colLength);

return TRUE;
 
}
 
 
HRESULT CFastLoad::InsertData()
{

HRESULT hr;
 
if (m_pIFastLoad != NULL)
{
hr = m_pIFastLoad->InsertRow(cda.GetHAccessor(0),//cda.m_pAccessorInfo->hAccessor,
 cda.GetBuffer());
 
if (FAILED(hr)) return hr;
 
hr=m_pIFastLoad->Commit(FALSE);

if (FAILED(hr)) return hr;
}
 
return hr;
 
}
 
HRESULT CFastLoad::FinishLoad()
{
 
HRESULT hr;
 
hr=m_pIFastLoad->Commit(TRUE);
 
if (FAILED(hr)) return hr;
 
hr=cda.ReleaseAccessors(m_pIFastLoad);
 
return hr;
 
}
 
void main(int argc, char* argv[])
{
 
string database;
string instance;
string tablename;
 
while(*argv)
{
string token = *argv;

if(token=="-d")
{
argv++;
database=*argv;
}
else if(token=="-s")
{
argv++;
instance =*argv;
}
else if(token=="-t")
{
argv++;
tablename =*argv;
}
else if(token=="-h")
{
printf("Enter your options: For example:\n"
"fastload.exe -s <instance name> -d <dbname> -t <table name>\n");
exit(0);
}
argv++;
}
 
CFastLoad cfl;

cfl.InitFastLoadATL();
 
cfl.OpenDataSource(instance,database,tablename);
 
int x=20;
 
cfl.BindData(&x,4,1);
cfl.BindData("Hello World",11,2);
 
cfl.InsertData();
 
x=30;
cfl.BindData(&x,4,1);
cfl.BindData("Hello OLEDB",11,2);
 
cfl.InsertData();
 
cfl.FinishLoad();
 
cfl.UnInitFastLoadATL();
}

 
 

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