We had the same problem starting last night when we shut down the VM that hosts one of our SQL Servers due to a Hyper-V host issue. This particular sql server, cs3, replicates data to eight other sql servers. cs3 could not connect to one of the down line sql servers, cs2. cs2 is our primary production sql server. All of our applications and processes could connect to it. It was only cs3 that could not. From a command line we could not even ping cs2.
Ultimately, we shut down cs3, deleted the nic adapter from with in SC-VMM. Then added it back in and set the configuration, both in VMM and in windows.
cs3 - Windows Server 2016, Sql Server 2016 SP2 Enterprise Edition.
cs2 - Windows Server 2016, Sql Server 2016 SP2 Enterprise Edition.
MCP, MCTS, MCITP DBA
Winona State University
"Quality, like Success, is a Journey, not a Destination" - William Soranno '92