This is what I have found to be true in a similar issue. Yes, this post comes many years after the original post; but I happened across this forum thread today while researching my issue.
I discovered this application event log error message reoccurring on Windows Server 2008 R2 Standard server running SQL Server 2008.
Log Name: Application
Date: 11/30/2012 2:33:48 PM
Event ID: 28005
Task Category: Server
An exception occurred while enqueueing a message in the target queue. Error: 15404, State: 19. Could not obtain information about Windows NT group/user 'DOMAIN\UserAccount', error code 0x5.
From query analyzer I executed the following T-SQL code and received a similar error message.
Msg 15404, Level 16, State 19, Procedure xp_logininfo, Line 62
Could not obtain information about Windows NT group/user ‘DOMAIN\UserAccount’, error code 0x5.
It is standard practice at my company to run the SQL Server database engine service using a domain service/user account. It is my understanding that when the xp_loginfo command is executed, whatever account is running the database engine service is used to query Active Directory to validate the user account name supplied to the extended stored procedure xp_logininfo.
It is also standard practice at my company to organize various domain user accounts and groups into different Active Directory containers. The issue here was that the service account running the database engine service did not have permissions to read the container in which the end user account resides. An earlier post, “my guess is that 0x5 is an access denied message” is correct (according to my domain admin); but it refers to Active Directory permissions and not SQL Server permissions.
Working with my domain admin, the solution was to grant read permission (in Active Directory) on the end user account to the SQL Server database engine service account.