Apart from the vastly improved SMB process which impacts network IO and any Named Pipes processing, the improved IO process, the ability to turn Core mode on and off, and if you use Hyper-V the much improved performance with vhdx files in W2012 and W2012R2, not a lot.
Original author: SQL Server FineBuild 1-click install and best practice configuration of SQL Server 2017 2016, 2014, 2012, 2008 R2, 2008 and 2005. 1 Dec 2016
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