No, there is no support in other database systems to "talk" service broker protocol.
That doesn't mean that whatever you want to do is not possible. I have used service broker to populate an ElasticSearch index in real-time. This was done by creating a .NET Windows service to RECEIVE from the target queue, process the messages and respond back to initiator. This does not guarantee any transactional consitency, since ElasticSearch can't joint the SQL Server transaction. If the update to ElasticSearch succeeds, but then something fails before I can respond to the initiator and commit, there is no way to rollback the ElasticSearch changes. We were able to live with that, but you need to decide for yourself if that is acceptable in your environment.