In simple recovery mode, when you take a full backup, I believe the log file is backed up and truncated.
In simple recovery model a checkpoint will truncate the log. Checkpoints run on a regular basis. In full and bulk-logged recovery model a log backup truncates the log
Full backups do not, in any recovery model, truncate the log. Nor do they back up the log (though they include enough of the log for a consistent restore in all recovery models)
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