I have seen similar situations, particulary on my sandbox clusters.
There are a few ways to safely shut down a cluster, and a few that can cause problems.
a) Shut down each node one by one. Wait until all passive nodes have completed shutdown before shutting down the active node. On restart, start the previously active node first.
b) Shut down SQL by putting the cluster offline (CLUSTER ClusterName RESOURCE GroupName /OFF) before you shutdown any nodes. After restart put the cluster back online, which will restart SQL.
a) Stop SQL Server with NET STOP or similar. Almost always causes a problem.
b) Shut down all nodes at the same time. This can cause a problem if some objects complete their failover before the active node shuts down, leaving other objects still on the active node. However, on a power failuer everything gets killed at once so this should not give a problem at restart.
My recommendation is to build a sandbox cluster, then run some scenarios that could break it, and when it is broken work out how to fix it. Unless you have destroyed some data, just about all broken clusters are can be fixed, even if you have to eject nodes and add them back in again.
Original author: SQL Server FineBuild 1-click install and best practice configuration of SQL Server 2017 2016, 2014, 2012, 2008 R2, 2008 and 2005. 14 Mar 2017
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