I understand that change tracking writes changes to "internal tables." Are these in the database that the change tracking is occuring on?
The internal change tracking tables reside in the database where changes are being tracked, not in tempdb. This is critical for disaster recovery and high-availability. Change tracking information is included in the backup file when a database is backed up, and when a backup file is restored.
Do internal tables include inserted and deleted tables (e.g., those that are involved with DML triggers)?
No, INSERTED and DELETED are virtual, read-only tables that are only present for the duration of a transaction, and are only accessible inside the trigger code. Changes are tracked for user-tables.Change Tracking (SQL Server 2008 R2)
__________________________________________________________________________________________________There are no special teachers of virtue, because virtue is taught by the whole community. --Plato