Universities devote a few weeks a semester of a database class to normalization, so it will take you some time to learn and practice. At least back when I was in university.
The internet search doesn't take too long.
Do a search for Boyce-Codd Normal Form. In the past, this was considered the goal for normalization (3rd normal form). Like everything in IT, it DEPENDS on the specific database and performance considerations as to whether or not to "normalize" or not.