http://www.sqlservercentral.com/blogs/sqlmanofmystery/2011/03/24/fast-file-copy-with-managed-code_3A00_-ubcopy-update_2100_/

Printed 2014/08/31 04:43AM

Fast File Copy With Managed Code: UBCopy update!

By Wesley Brown, 2011/03/24

If you have been following my trials with working with C# and files you know it hasn’t been a bed of roses. I ran into a roadblock when I was trying to build a high performance file copy tool in the CLR. I eventually found a solution. It works but it isn’t very clean. So, I did a little more work, removed a broken bit and simplified another bit to make it a little more stable. I’m not done yet. I know there are a couple of places I can clean the code up a bit more and a way to speed things up a bit more at the cost of using more memory, but that is for another blog post.

Logging, to the rescue

The first major change was adding a logging facility to the UBCopy program via log4net. I had stayed away from adding it fearing to much overhead but after some tweaking it seems pretty darn fast. This allowed me to do some tight timings and log debug information to a log file to track long running copies without much fuss. It also allows me to turn off all console messaging since this is used in an automated fashion if something fails I’ve got the log file to look at.

Please don’t lock my file

There are a few places where the file target file being written to could potentially be locked. Right now I have to create the file and set the file length then close it before opening it for unbuffered writes. I haven’t done anything about this grab yet. The second one is when I am writing the last block to the file. Since you have to write in page aligned multiples I was closing the file, reopening it in a buffered mode and flushing the last partial buffer to disk. I haven’t fixed these up yet but I am working on a solution. I haven’t encountered a problem yet where the file gets locked during this process but it is still a potential threat that must be dealt with. Even though the file stream is seekable and writeable you can’t issue a setlength command on it. I plan on looking deeper into the filestream code and see what they are doing when you issue a setlength. If I can eliminate the open,close and open routine it will speed things up a bit and keep anyone from grabbing my file handle.
Here’s and example of what I’m talking about, after the set file size is done there is a very small window of opportunity here.

//open output file set length to prevent growth and file fragmentation and close it.
            //We do this to prevent file fragmentation and make the write as fast as possible.
            try
            {
                _outfile = new FileStream(_outputfile, FileMode.Create, FileAccess.Write, FileShare.None, 8,
                                          FileOptions.WriteThrough);
                //set file size to minimum of one buffer to cut down on fragmentation
                _outfile.SetLength(_infilesize > CopyBufferSize ? _infilesize : CopyBufferSize);
                _outfile.Close();
                _outfile.Dispose();
            }
            catch (Exception e)
            {
                throw;
            }
            //open file for write unbuffered
            try
            {
                _outfile = new FileStream(_outputfile, FileMode.Open, FileAccess.Write, FileShare.None, 8,
                                          FileOptions.WriteThrough | FileFlagNoBuffering);

            }
            catch (Exception e)
            {
                throw;
            }

Unbuffered, mostly

Since unbuffered writes prevent you from writing data that isn’t memory page aligned (usually 4096), you get an error when writing to the file. To get around this all writes are the same size period, this really only effects the last write which may have a partially full buffer. It will write down the full buffer, including invalid data. Luckily, an easy fix is to reset the end of file pointer back to the correct location and everything is happy again. This allows me to eliminate an additional bit of code. here is the old code.

//open file for write buffered We do this so we can write the tail of the file
//it is a cludge but hey you get what you get in C#
outfile = new FileStream(outputfile, FileMode.Open, FileAccess.Write, FileShare.None, 8,
             FileOptions.WriteThrough);
//go to the right position in the file
outfile.Seek(infilesize - bytesRead1, 0);
//flush the last buffer syncronus and buffered.
outfile.Write(Buffer1, 0, bytesRead1);

And now the new, faster and better way!

//close the file handle that was using unbuffered and write through and move the EOF pointer.
Log.Debug("Close Write File Unbuffered");
_outfile.Close();
_outfile.Dispose();

try
{
    if (IsDebugEnabled)
    {
        Log.Debug("Open File Set Length");
    }
    _outfile = new FileStream(_outputfile, FileMode.Open, FileAccess.Write, FileShare.None, 8,
                                FileOptions.WriteThrough);
    _outfile.SetLength(_infilesize);
    _outfile.Close();
    _outfile.Dispose();
}
catch (Exception e)
{
    if (IsDebugEnabled)
    {
        Log.Debug("Failed to open for write set length");
        Log.Debug(e);
    }
    throw;
}

Buffered or Unbuffered

If the file was smaller than the size of the buffer I was just copying the file buffered. This was a check and route to a diffrent code path for copying files. Not a huge deal but just another place for problems to creep up over time. So, I removed it when I changed the way unbuffered multi-threaded writes were happening I was able to get rid of the buffered copy routine all together. Now, it will initially set the file size to a single buffer. Write the data and reset the file pointer to the original size.

You want a MOVE but get a COPY

There was also a bug that on small files UBCopy wouldn’t do a move just a copy in some cases. There was an error in the code that prevented the delete of the source file after the copy to the new location due to a lock that was being held by the program. Not the end of the world, just wasn’t working like it should 100% of the time.

So, here is the new AsyncUnbuffCopy routine. Calling it is super easy. If you want to use the code as-is you will need to download log4net and include it in your project.

//
// AsyncUnbuffCopy.cs
//
// Authors:
//  Wesley D. Brown <wes@planetarydb.com>
//
// Copyright (C) 2010 SQLServerIO (http://www.SQLServerIO.com)
//
// Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining
// a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the
// "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including
// without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish,
// distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to
// permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to
// the following conditions:
//
// The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be
// included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
//
// THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND,
// EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF
// MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND
// NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE
// LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION
// OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION
// WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
//

using System;
using System.IO;
using System.Security.Cryptography;
using System.Text;
using System.Threading;
using log4net;

namespace UBCopy
{
    internal class AsyncUnbuffCopy
    {
        private static readonly ILog Log = LogManager.GetLogger(typeof(AsyncUnbuffCopy));
        private static readonly bool IsDebugEnabled = Log.IsDebugEnabled;

        //file names
        private static string _inputfile;
        private static string _outputfile;

        //checksum holders
        private static string _infilechecksum;
        private static string _outfilechecksum;

        //show write progress
        private static bool _reportprogress;

        //cursor position
        private static int _origRow;
        private static int _origCol;

        //number of chunks to copy
        private static int _numchunks;

        //track read state and read failed state
        private static bool _readfailed;

        //syncronization object
        private static readonly object Locker1 = new object();

        //buffer size
        public static int CopyBufferSize;
        private static long _infilesize;

        //buffer read
        public static byte[] Buffer1;
        private static int _bytesRead1;

        //buffer overlap
        public static byte[] Buffer2;
        private static bool _buffer2Dirty;
        private static int _bytesRead2;

        //buffer write
        public static byte[] Buffer3;

        //total bytes read
        private static long _totalbytesread;
        private static long _totalbyteswritten;

        //filestreams
        private static FileStream _infile;
        private static FileStream _outfile;

        //secret sauce for unbuffered IO
        const FileOptions FileFlagNoBuffering = (FileOptions)0x20000000;

        private static void AsyncReadFile()
        {
            //open input file
            try
            {
                _infile = new FileStream(_inputfile, FileMode.Open, FileAccess.Read, FileShare.None,
CopyBufferSize, FileFlagNoBuffering);
            }
            catch (Exception e)
            {
                if (IsDebugEnabled)
                {
                    Log.Debug("Failed to open for read");
                    Log.Debug(e);
                }
                throw;
            }
            //if we have data read it
            while (_totalbytesread < _infilesize)
            {
                if (IsDebugEnabled)
                {
                    Log.Debug("Read _buffer2Dirty    : " + _buffer2Dirty);
                }
                _bytesRead1 = _infile.Read(Buffer1, 0, CopyBufferSize);
                Monitor.Enter(Locker1);
                try
                {
                    while (_buffer2Dirty) Monitor.Wait(Locker1);
                    Buffer.BlockCopy(Buffer1, 0, Buffer2, 0, _bytesRead1);
                    _buffer2Dirty = true;
                    _bytesRead2 = _bytesRead1;
                    _totalbytesread = _totalbytesread + _bytesRead1;
                    Monitor.PulseAll(Locker1);
                    if (IsDebugEnabled)
                    {

                        Log.Debug("Read       : " + _totalbytesread);
                    }
                }
                catch (Exception e)
                {
                    Log.Fatal("Read Failed.");
                    Log.Fatal(e);
                    _readfailed = true;
                    throw;
                }
                finally { Monitor.Exit(Locker1); }
            }
            //clean up open handle
            _infile.Close();
            _infile.Dispose();
        }

        private static void AsyncWriteFile()
        {
            //open output file set length to prevent growth and file fragmentation and close it.
            //We do this to prevent file fragmentation and make the write as fast as possible.
            try
            {
                if (IsDebugEnabled)
                {
                    Log.Debug("Open File Set Length");
                }
                _outfile = new FileStream(_outputfile, FileMode.Create, FileAccess.Write, FileShare.None, 8,
                                          FileOptions.WriteThrough);

                //set file size to minimum of one buffer to cut down on fragmentation
                _outfile.SetLength(_infilesize > CopyBufferSize ? _infilesize : CopyBufferSize);

                _outfile.Close();
                _outfile.Dispose();
            }
            catch (Exception e)
            {
                Log.Fatal("Failed to open for write set length");
                Log.Fatal(e);
                throw;
            }

            //open file for write unbuffered
            try
            {
                if (IsDebugEnabled)
                {
                    Log.Debug("Open File Write Unbuffered");
                }
                _outfile = new FileStream(_outputfile, FileMode.Open, FileAccess.Write, FileShare.None, 8,
                                          FileOptions.WriteThrough | FileFlagNoBuffering);

            }
            catch (Exception e)
            {
                Log.Fatal("Failed to open for write unbuffered");
                Log.Fatal(e);
                throw;
            }

            var pctinc = 0.0;
            var progress = pctinc;

            //progress stuff
            if (_reportprogress)
            {
                if (IsDebugEnabled)
                {
                    Log.Debug("Report Progress : True");
                }
                pctinc = 100.00 / _numchunks;
            }
            if (IsDebugEnabled)
            {
                Log.Debug("While Write _totalbyteswritten          : " + _totalbyteswritten);
                Log.Debug("While Write _infilesize - CopyBufferSize: " + (_infilesize - CopyBufferSize));
            }
            while ((_totalbyteswritten < _infilesize) && !_readfailed)
            {
                if (IsDebugEnabled)
                {
                    Log.Debug("Write Unbuffered _buffer2Dirty    : " + _buffer2Dirty);
                }
                lock (Locker1)
                {
                    if (IsDebugEnabled)
                    {
                        Log.Debug("Write Unbuffered Lock");
                    }
                    while (!_buffer2Dirty) Monitor.Wait(Locker1);
                    if (IsDebugEnabled)
                    {
                        Log.Debug("Write Unbuffered _buffer2Dirty    : " + _buffer2Dirty);
                    }
                    Buffer.BlockCopy(Buffer2, 0, Buffer3, 0, _bytesRead2);
                    _buffer2Dirty = false;
                    if (IsDebugEnabled)
                    {
                        Log.Debug("Write Unbuffered _buffer2Dirty    : " + _buffer2Dirty);
                    }
                    _totalbyteswritten = _totalbyteswritten + CopyBufferSize;
                    if (IsDebugEnabled)
                    {
                        Log.Debug("Written Unbuffered : " + _totalbyteswritten);
                    }
                    Monitor.PulseAll(Locker1);
                    //fancy dan in place percent update on each write.

                    if (_reportprogress && !IsDebugEnabled)
                    {
                        Console.SetCursorPosition(_origCol, _origRow);
                        if (progress < 101 - pctinc)
                        {
                            progress = progress + pctinc;
                            Console.Write("%{0}", Math.Round(progress, 0));
                        }
                    }
                }
                try
                {
                    _outfile.Write(Buffer3, 0, CopyBufferSize);
                }
                catch (Exception e)
                {
                    Log.Fatal("Write Unbuffered Failed");
                    Log.Fatal(e);
                    throw;
                }
            }

            //close the file handle that was using unbuffered and write through
            Log.Debug("Close Write File Unbuffered");
            _outfile.Close();
            _outfile.Dispose();

            try
            {
                if (IsDebugEnabled)
                {
                    Log.Debug("Open File Set Length");
                }
                _outfile = new FileStream(_outputfile, FileMode.Open, FileAccess.Write, FileShare.None, 8,
                                          FileOptions.WriteThrough);
                _outfile.SetLength(_infilesize);
                _outfile.Close();
                _outfile.Dispose();
            }
            catch (Exception e)
            {
                if (IsDebugEnabled)
                {
                    Log.Debug("Failed to open for write set length");
                    Log.Debug(e);
                }
                throw;
            }
        }

        public static int AsyncCopyFileUnbuffered(string inputfile, string outputfile, bool overwrite,
bool movefile, bool checksum, int buffersize, bool reportprogress)
        {
            if (IsDebugEnabled)
            {
                Log.Debug("inputfile      : " + inputfile);
                Log.Debug("outputfile     : " + outputfile);
                Log.Debug("overwrite      : " + overwrite);
                Log.Debug("movefile       : " + movefile);
                Log.Debug("checksum       : " + checksum);
                Log.Debug("buffersize     : " + buffersize);
                Log.Debug("reportprogress : " + reportprogress);
            }
            //report write progress
            _reportprogress = reportprogress;

            //set file name globals
            _inputfile = inputfile;
            _outputfile = outputfile;

            //setup single buffer size, remember this will be x3.
            CopyBufferSize = buffersize * 1024 * 1024;

            //buffer read
            Buffer1 = new byte[CopyBufferSize];

            //buffer overlap
            Buffer2 = new byte[CopyBufferSize];

            //buffer write
            Buffer3 = new byte[CopyBufferSize];

            //clear all flags and handles
            _totalbytesread = 0;
            _totalbyteswritten = 0;
            _bytesRead1 = 0;
            _buffer2Dirty = false;

            //if the overwrite flag is set to false check to see if the file is there.
            if (File.Exists(outputfile) && !overwrite)
            {
                if (IsDebugEnabled)
                {
                    Log.Debug("Destination File Exists!");
                }
                Console.WriteLine("Destination File Exists!");
                return 0;
            }

            //create the directory if it doesn't exist
            if (!Directory.Exists(outputfile))
            {
                try
                {
                    // ReSharper disable AssignNullToNotNullAttribute
                    Directory.CreateDirectory(Path.GetDirectoryName(outputfile));
                    // ReSharper restore AssignNullToNotNullAttribute
                }
                catch (Exception e)
                {
                    Log.Fatal("Create Directory Failed.");
                    Log.Fatal(e);
                    Console.WriteLine("Create Directory Failed.");
                    Console.WriteLine(e.Message);
                    throw;
                }
            }

            //get input file size for later use
            var inputFileInfo = new FileInfo(_inputfile);
            _infilesize = inputFileInfo.Length;

            //get number of buffer sized chunks used to correctly display percent complete.
            _numchunks = (int)((_infilesize / CopyBufferSize) <= 0 ? (_infilesize / CopyBufferSize) : 1);

            if (IsDebugEnabled)
            {
                Log.Debug("File Copy Started");
            }
            Console.WriteLine("File Copy Started");

            //create read thread and start it.
            var readfile = new Thread(AsyncReadFile) { Name = "ReadThread", IsBackground = true };
            readfile.Start();

            if (IsDebugEnabled)
            {
                //debug show if we are an even multiple of the file size
                Log.Debug("Number of Chunks: " + _numchunks);
            }

            //create write thread and start it.
            var writefile = new Thread(AsyncWriteFile) { Name = "WriteThread", IsBackground = true };
            writefile.Start();

            if (_reportprogress)
            {
                //set fancy curor position
                _origRow = Console.CursorTop;
                _origCol = Console.CursorLeft;
            }

            //wait for threads to finish
            readfile.Join();
            writefile.Join();

            //leave a blank line for the progress indicator
            if (_reportprogress)
                Console.WriteLine();

            if (IsDebugEnabled)
            {
                Log.Debug("File Copy Done");
            }

            Console.WriteLine("File Copy Done");

            if (checksum)
            {
                if (IsDebugEnabled)
                {
                    Log.Debug("Checksum Source File Started");
                }
                Console.WriteLine("Checksum Source File Started");
                //create checksum read file thread and start it.
                var checksumreadfile = new Thread(GetMD5HashFromInputFile) {
Name = "checksumreadfile", IsBackground = true };
                checksumreadfile.Start();

                if (IsDebugEnabled)
                {
                    Log.Debug("Checksum Destination File Started");
                }
                Console.WriteLine("Checksum Destination File Started");
                //create checksum write file thread and start it.
                var checksumwritefile = new Thread(GetMD5HashFromOutputFile) {
Name = "checksumwritefile", IsBackground = true };
                checksumwritefile.Start();

                //hang out until the checksums are done.
                checksumreadfile.Join();
                checksumwritefile.Join();

                if (_infilechecksum.Equals(_outfilechecksum))
                {
                    if (IsDebugEnabled)
                    {
                        Log.Debug("Checksum Verified");
                    }
                    Console.WriteLine("Checksum Verified");
                }
                else
                {
                    if (IsDebugEnabled)
                    {
                        Log.Debug("Checksum Failed");
                        Log.DebugFormat("Input File Checksum : {0}", _infilechecksum);
                        Log.DebugFormat("Output File Checksum: {0}", _outfilechecksum);
                    }
                    Console.WriteLine("Checksum Failed");
                    Console.WriteLine("Input File Checksum : {0}", _infilechecksum);
                    Console.WriteLine("Output File Checksum: {0}", _outfilechecksum);
                }
            }

            if (movefile && File.Exists(inputfile) && File.Exists(outputfile))
                try
                {
                    File.Delete(inputfile);
                }
                catch (IOException ioex)
                {
                    if (IsDebugEnabled)
                    {
                        Log.Error("File in use or locked cannot move file.");
                        Log.Error(ioex);
                    }
                    Console.WriteLine("File in use or locked");
                    Console.WriteLine(ioex.Message);
                }
                catch (Exception ex)
                {
                    if (IsDebugEnabled)
                    {
                        Log.Error("File Failed to Delete");
                        Log.Error(ex);
                    }
                    Console.WriteLine("File Failed to Delete");
                    Console.WriteLine(ex.Message);
                }
            return 1;
        }

        //hash input file
        public static void GetMD5HashFromInputFile()
        {
            var fs = new FileStream(_inputfile, FileMode.Open, FileAccess.Read, FileShare.None,
CopyBufferSize);
            MD5 md5 = new MD5CryptoServiceProvider();
            byte[] retVal = md5.ComputeHash(fs);
            fs.Close();

            var sb = new StringBuilder();
            for (var i = 0; i < retVal.Length; i++)
            {
                sb.Append(retVal[i].ToString("x2"));
            }
            _infilechecksum = sb.ToString();
        }

        //hash output file
        public static void GetMD5HashFromOutputFile()
        {
            var fs = new FileStream(_outputfile, FileMode.Open, FileAccess.Read, FileShare.None,
CopyBufferSize);
            MD5 md5 = new MD5CryptoServiceProvider();
            byte[] retVal = md5.ComputeHash(fs);
            fs.Close();

            var sb = new StringBuilder();
            for (var i = 0; i < retVal.Length; i++)
            {
                sb.Append(retVal[i].ToString("x2"));
            }
            _outfilechecksum = sb.ToString();
        }
    }
}


Copyright © 2002-2014 Simple Talk Publishing. All Rights Reserved. Privacy Policy. Terms of Use. Report Abuse.