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Printed 2014/08/29 10:27AM

SQL Server : Usage of OVER Clause

By nelsonaloor, 2012/09/10

Over  clause can be used in association with aggregate function and ranking function. The over clause determine the partitioning and ordering of the records before associating with aggregate or ranking function. Over by clause along with aggregate function can help us to resolve many issues in simpler way. Below is a sample of Over clause along with the aggregate function.

SELECT 
SalesOrderID
,p.Name AS ProductName
,OrderQty
,SUM(OrderQty) OVER(PARTITION BY SalesOrderID) AS TotalOrderQty
,AVG(OrderQty) OVER(PARTITION BY SalesOrderID) AS "Avg Qty of Item"     ,COUNT(OrderQty)OVER(PARTITION BY SalesOrderID) AS "Total Number of Item"     
,MIN(OrderQty) OVER(PARTITION BY SalesOrderID) AS "Min order Qty"     
,MAX(OrderQty) OVER(PARTITION BY SalesOrderID) AS "Max Order Qty" 
FROM Sales.SalesOrderDetail SOD INNER JOIN Production.Product p ON SOD.ProductID=p.ProductID WHERE SalesOrderID IN(43659,43664)

The Partition clause tell the aggregate function that the result should  be based on the salesorderid. The output will looks like as given below


TotalOrderQty: is the total quantity of product ordered in the the sales order.
Avg Qty of Item : is the average of order quantity for a salesorder. In our case Totalorderqty for the salesorderid 43659 is 26 and we have twelve order line . So the average quantity per order line = 26/12
Total Number of Item : is the number of product ordered in a salesorder.
Min Order Qty : is the minimum quantity ordered in a salesorder.
Max Order Qty: is the maximum quantity ordered in a salesorder.

The difference between group by and this method is , in group by we will get only the summery part. In our case if we use group by,will get only two records in the output. To get the result as above using group by, we need to write the query as given below:

SELECT 
p.name,GRPRESULT.
FROM sales.SalesOrderDetail SOD INNER JOIN Production.Product p ON SOD.ProductID=p.ProductIDINNER JOIN 
(
     SELECT
     
SalesOrderID
    
,SUM(OrderQty) AS TotalOrderQty
    
,AVG(OrderQty) AS "Avg Qty of Item"     

    ,COUNT(OrderQty)AS "Total Number of Item"       
    ,MIN(OrderQty) AS "Min order Qty"           
   ,MAX(OrderQty) AS "Max Order Qty" FROM Sales.SalesOrderDetail WHERE SalesOrderID               IN(43659,43664)GROUP BY SalesOrderID
GRPRESULT 
ON  GRPRESULT .SalesOrderID =sod.SalesOrderID  


Another interesting part is we can use the over clause with out partition clause which will do an aggregation on entire result set . Let us assume that we have requirement to list all sales order for the year 2008 with sales order number, total amount and Percentage of  2008 sales. It can be achieved easily as given below.

USE AdventureWorks2008
GO

SELECT 
SalesOrderNumber,
TotalDue,
(
TotalDue*100.)/  SUM(TotalDue) OVER()  AS [%2008Sales]

FROM Sales.SalesOrderHeader WHERE YEAR(OrderDate)=2008

In SQL server 2012 there are more options along with over clause to display cumulative total .

ROW_NUMBER, RANK, DENSE_RANK and NTILE are the ranking function which can be used along with Over clause. For ranking function along with Partition by clause, we can use Order by clause also.To explain the rank function let us have a small table 

USE 
mydb
GO

CREATE TABLE Student
(
   
Name VARCHAR(10)
)

INSERT INTO Student VALUES ('aa'),('bb'),('cc'),('dd'),('ee')
INSERT INTO Student VALUES ('aa'),('bb'),('cc')
INSERT INTO Student VALUES ('aa'),('bb'),('cc')
INSERT INTO Student VALUES ('dd'),('ee')
INSERT INTO Student VALUES ('dd'),('ee')
INSERT INTO Student VALUES ('ff'),('gg'),('hh')

Row_Number() can be used in many scenarios like to filter the records, remove the duplicated records , implementing paging etc. Let us assume that we need to generate serial number while listing the entries from the student table.
SELECT ROW_NUMBER() OVER (ORDER BY NAMEAS [Si No],* FROM Student 

To remove the duplicate entries from the above table 
WITH cte_s
AS (
   
SELECT ROW_NUMBER() OVER (PARTITION BY name ORDER BY NAMEAS [SiNo],* FROM Student 

  )
DELETE FROM cte_s WHERE [SiNo]<>1
GO
SELECT FROM Student 

Let us assume that we have to divide the student into four group for a game. The NTILE will help us 

SELECT NTILE(4OVER (ORDER BY NAMEAS [Grpno],* FROM Student 

As the total number of records 18 is not divisible by 4, it has created two groups with 5 students and other two groups with 4 students.

Let us have slightly different table structure to understand RANK and DENSE_RANK function.

CREATE TABLE StudentMark
(
  
Name VARCHAR(10),
  
Mark INT

)
INSERT INTO StudentMark VALUES 
('aa',10),('bb',14),('cc',16),
('dd',22),('ee',25),('ff',25),
('gg',11),('hh',21),('ii',16)

To assign a rank to student based on their mark we can use the below query


SELECT RANK() OVER (ORDER BY mark DESC) AS 'Rank' ,* FROM StudentMark

The output will looks like as given below:

We can see that rank is assigned based on the position .We have two student with same marks and the student who has next highest marks came in the third position. This listing will be suitable for scenario like an entrance examination result for a total seat of 50. Student who has rank above 50 will not get the admission.
But some scenario we might need to display the actual rank with out any gap.The student who has the second highest mark should have the second rank irrespective of number of student have highest mark. The  below query will helps us to do that.

SELECT DENSE_RANK() OVER (ORDER BY mark DESC) AS 'Rank' ,*  FROM StudentMark 

The output will looks like as given below:

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