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Devin Knight

Devin is a BI consultant at Pragmatic Works Consulting. Previously, he has tech edited the book Professional Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Integration Services and was an author in the book Knight's 24-Hour Trainer: Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Integration Services. Devin has spoken at past conferences like PASS and at several SQL Saturday events. He is a contributing member to the Business Intelligence Special Interest Group (SIG) for PASS as a leader in the SSIS Focus Group. Making his home in Jacksonville, FL, Devin is a participating member of the local users’ group (JSSUG).

MDX Time Calculations Built to Scale

When creating time calculations in Analysis Services you may take several approaches. For people that have just begin learning SSAS they likely have spent several days writing calculations that return things like year to date, rolling twelve month, and period over period for every measure they have.

For the more adventurous developer they have tried using the Business Intelligence wizard which automates the process of writing time calculations on selected measures. It creates an attribute in the date dimension that can then be used to view calculations. This sounds like a great idea but it is very inflexible when changes are needed and is still specific to the measures that were selected during the wizard configuration. Another problem with the BI wizard is it can only be run against one date dimension hierarchy at a time.With many dimensional models date can mean many different things, it can be a calendar date, fiscal date, ship date, order date, and many others. There is likely only one date table in the data warehouse but plays the role of many different dates making it a role playing dimension. If you wanted those same time calculations for each role playing dimension using the BI wizard you would have to run through the wizard multiple times and then enjoy managing that mess later.

The best way to handle time calculation is detailed in the book Expert Cube Development with SSAS Multidimensional Models. You may have heard me sing praises of this book before because the content is that useful for real world problems. What I’m going to show you in this article is my variation of what they show in that book. The benefit of this method is multifold. It is a lot easier to manage than the BI wizard because you have total control of it. It’s dynamic because the formula will work no matter what measure is being viewed. Also, it is easy to filter just the calculations you want because it’s just like any other attribute that you would filter by.

To follow this example you can download the sample database from www.codeplex.com. When you download and install this sample database you also receive sample files for deploying an Analysis Services cube that can be found here C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\100\Tools\Samples.

To start this example create a SQL Server view that will simply store the name of the calculation that you want to create and an ID column.

Create VIEW [dbo].[DateCalcs] AS

SELECT ID = 1, Calculation = ‘Actuals’

UNION ALL

SELECT ID = 2, Calculation = ‘Calendar Year To Date’

UNION ALL

SELECT ID = 3, Calculation = ‘Fiscal Year To Date’

UNION ALL

SELECT ID = 4, Calculation = ‘Calendar Previous Period’

UNION ALL

SELECT ID = 5, Calculation = ‘Fiscal Previous Period’

UNION ALL

SELECT ID = 6, Calculation = ‘Calendar Previous Period Diff’

UNION ALL

SELECT ID = 7, Calculation = ‘Fiscal Previous Period Diff’

The resulting view looks like this:

ID Calculation

1 Actuals

2 Calendar Year To Date

3 Fiscal Year To Date

4 Calendar Previous Period

5 Fiscal Previous Period

6 Calendar Previous Period Diff

7 Fiscal Previous Period Diff

Create as many time values for the Calculation column as you will need time calculations in the cube. Here I have created a set of calculations for Calendar and Fiscal because it is likely I will be required to have these calculations for both my Calendar and Fiscal dates.

Once this is created add the view to your data source view. Notice after adding the view that it has no relationships to any other object, which is fine because no relationships are needed.

Create a new dimension based off the DateCalcs view with the ID column as the Key column and the Calculation column as a regular attribute. Select the ID attribute and change the AttributeHierarchyVisible property to False to hide it from the users. Select the Calculation attribute and change the IsAggregatable property to False. This will remove the All level you are used to seeing in dimensions which isn’t necessary for the dimension.

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The last step is to select the Calculation attribute and change the DefaultMember property to the Actuals member [Date Calcs].[Calculation].&[Actuals]. When all these changes have been made you can process this dimension. After the processing completes add the new dimension to be used in this cube by going to the Cube Structure tab in the cube designer. To add the dimension right click in the Dimensions pane in the bottom left and select Add Cube Dimension. Select Date Calcs from the list to make it usable to this cube. You will notice if you view the Dimension Usage tab that it has no relationship to any Measure Group, which is not a problem.

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With the Date Calcs dimension prepped you can now open the Cube designer and open the Calculations tab. Here you will be using the mdx SCOPE statement to handle each of the calculations you wish to use. It does not matter what order we write each of these calculation but the first one we will tackle is Calendar Year To Date. Hit the New Script Command button ScriptIcon to get started.

Calendar Year To Date

SCOPE ([Date Calcs].[Calculation].[Calendar Year To Date]);

THIS =

AGGREGATE (

YTD ([Order Date].[Calendar Date].CurrentMember),

[Date Calcs].[Calculation].[Actuals]

);

END SCOPE

Fiscal Year To Date (Using a different method to calculate YTD)

SCOPE ([Date Calcs].[Calculation].[Fiscal Year To Date]);

THIS =

Aggregate(PeriodsToDate(

[Order Date].[Fiscal Date].[Fiscal Year],

[Order Date].[Fiscal Date].CurrentMember

),

([Date Calcs].[Calculation].[Actuals])

)

;

END SCOPE

Calendar Previous Period

SCOPE ([Date Calcs].[Calculation].[Calendar Previous Period]);

THIS =

([Order Date].[Calendar Date].CurrentMember.PrevMember,

[Date Calcs].[Calculation].[Actuals]);

END SCOPE 

 

Fiscal Previous Period

SCOPE ([Date Calcs].[Calculation].[Fiscal Previous Period]);

THIS =

([Order Date].[Fiscal Date].CurrentMember.PrevMember,

[Date Calcs].[Calculation].[Actuals]);

END SCOPE

Calendar Previous Period Diff

SCOPE ([Date Calcs].[Calculation].[Calendar Previous Period Diff]);

THIS =

([Order Date].[Calendar Date].CurrentMember,

[Date Calcs].[Calculation].[Actuals])-

([Order Date].[Calendar Date].CurrentMember.PrevMember,

[Date Calcs].[Calculation].[Actuals]);

END SCOPE 

Fiscal Previous Period Diff

SCOPE ([Date Calcs].[Calculation].[Fiscal Previous Period Diff]);

THIS =

([Order Date].[Fiscal Date].CurrentMember,

[Date Calcs].[Calculation].[Actuals])-

([Order Date].[Fiscal Date].CurrentMember.PrevMember,

[Date Calcs].[Calculation].[Actuals]);

END SCOPE

This gives you a good start on a Time Calculation dimension. Once these calculations are written you will need to process the cube. You may have noticed that in each of these calculations I never actually identify a measure that exists in the cube. That is actually the beautiful thing about this technique is that it works across all measures now! So instead of having to create a calculation for Sales, Profit, and all the other measures in the cube you only have to create this calculation once and it will work on all measures. Try it out yourself!

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