I wrote a series of articles at MSSQLTips.com to cover the cryptographic algorithms that are available with Microsoft SQL Server. Basically, I distilled what the current view is on each algorithm and whether or not it's okay to use. If you're looking at securing data using the cryptography SQL Server provides, have a look:
- Understanding the SQL Server HASHBYTES Hasing Algorithms
- Understanding the SQL Server Symmetric Encryption Algorithms
- Understanding the Importance of Key Length with the SQL Server Asymmetric Encryption Algorithms
This does cover through Microsoft SQL Server 2012, which adds SHA-2 to the hashing algorithms.