Click here to monitor SSC
SQLServerCentral is supported by Red Gate Software Ltd.
Log in  ::  Register  ::  Not logged in

Enums in SQL Server

By Simon Sabin,

SQL Server Lookups and Enums

We are told in database design class that normalisation is a good thing. We shouldn't repeat values, for many reasons including performance and maintainability. This means most of us have reference/lookup tables to hold lists of values. These tables will generally have 2 columns, a surrogate primary key normally the smallest integer data type as possible and a description column normally varchar(x).

create table PaymentType
  (PaymentTypeId          tinyint not null
,PaymentTypeDescription varchar(255) not null
,constraint  PK_PaymentType  primary key (PaymentTypeId)

What this means is that the related tables contain lots of foreign key columns that one there own have no meaning, they just contain a bunch of numbers.

create table Order
(OrderId       int      not null
,OrderDate     datetime not null
,PaymentTypeId tinyint  not null

If you want to retrieve data from the related tables based on the lookup value you have two options. You can either hard code the surrogate keys in your code, or join to the lookup table and use the description.

select Order.OrderId, Order.OrderDate, Order.PaymentTypeId
  from Order
 where PaymentTypeId = 3 --Invoice type
select Order.OrderId, Order.OrderDate, Order.PaymentTypeId
  from Order
  join PaymentType on Order.PaymentTypeId = PaymentType.PaymentTypeId
 where PaymentTypeDescription = 'Invoice'

Neither of these is ideal. The first makes your code un-readable (unless you use comments) and will only work if you have inserted the data into the lookup table with the same surrogate keys. If you have used an identity column this becomes much more difficult, especially when you have multiple environments.

The second option adds a level of complexity to all of your queries and if you have multiple lookups can affect performance.

In SQL Server 2000 and SQL Server 2005 where my application needs to perform lookups like the examples above I change my lookup table to use a meaningful surrogate key. I do this by changing the surrogate key to a 4 character column. This size is a provides data storage the same as an integer and should allow for meaningful values.

create table PaymentType
(PaymentTypeCode        char(4)      not null
,PaymentTypeDescription varchar(255) not null
,constraint   PK_PaymentType  primary key (PaymentTypeCode) ) create table Order (OrderId         int      not null ,OrderDate       datetime not null ...
,PaymentTypeCode char(4)  not null )

Your code can then look like this,

select Order.OrderId, Order.OrderDate, Order.PaymentTypeCode
  from Order
 where PaymentTypeCode = 'INVC'

This is still not ideal because even if you only have 10 lookup values you are still using 4 bytes to store the surrogate key, when you could have used a tinyint and only used 1 byte

Proposed Solution

What would be great would be able to have the best of both worlds, be able to use meaningful in code whilst maintaining the performance of small integer values.

If you have programmed outside of TSQL i.e. C# or VB then you should now be muttering something along the lines of "what we need is enums". Spot on, that is what I am suggesting "Allow literals and read only table data to be represented as enums"

select Order.OrderId, Order.OrderDate, Order.PaymentTypeCode
  from Order
 where PaymentTypeId = PaymentType.Invoice

If you think it would be good to be able to do the following then please vote for the suggestion on connect, "Allow literals and read only table data to be represented as enums("

About Simon Sabin

Simon is a Independent Consultant focusing on database architecture.
He specializes in performance SQL Server systems and recently on search technologies.
To keep up on Simons thoughts on SQL Server and other database related topics, read his blog
You can also read about Simon in a SQLServerCentral article by Steve Jones
Total article views: 8729 | Views in the last 30 days: 4
Related Articles

Lookups SCD's Historical Data

Grab Historical surrogate key


Alter column order

Alter column order


Column and constraint Lookup



Column Order in an Index

This short article shows the importance of order of columns in an index.


Columns order in the index

Columns order in the index


Join the most active online SQL Server Community

SQL knowledge, delivered daily, free:

Email address:  

You make SSC a better place

As a member of SQLServerCentral, you get free access to loads of fresh content: thousands of articles and SQL scripts, a library of free eBooks, a weekly database news roundup, a great Q & A platform… And it’s our huge, buzzing community of SQL Server Professionals that makes it such a success.

Join us!

Steve Jones

Already a member? Jump in:

Email address:   Password:   Remember me: Forgotten your password?
Steve Jones